Government Can Lawfully Violate Human Rights: The Case of Twitter vs. Nigeria.

Government Can Lawfully Violate Human Rights: The Case of Twitter vs. Nigeria. Daily Law Tips (Tip 807) by Onyekachi Umah, Esq., LL.M, ACIArb(UK)

Introduction:

The same Constitution of Nigeria that creates the fundamental human rights, allows the federal government of Nigeria and State Governments to suspend, diminish, limit, derogate and lawfully violate some fundamental human rights. This is the reason for the popular cliché; “Fundamental human rights are not absolute”. Yes, while a person enjoys his fundamental human rights, there are 2 specific circumstances that the Constitution of Nigeria allows government to lawfully violate fundamental human rights, without any damages/consequences.

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The Federal Government of Nigeria banned Twitter in Nigeria on 5 June 2021 and also threatens to prosecutes all Twitter Users in Nigeria. Twitter; a micro-blogging site deleted the tweets (public messages) of the President of Nigeria for being offensive. Facebook also removed similar presidential messages but has not been banned yet. Twitter is a social networking service launched in July 2006 and founded by Jack Dorsey and three others, having a total asset of USD $13.37 Billion as at 2020.

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This work examines the constitutionally approved procedures for the lawful violation of some fundamental human rights, under the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. It reveals the fundamental human rights in Nigeria that can be lawfully violated by government, as well as the legal procedure for such lawful violation. It also examines the ban on Twitter and Twitter Users in Nigeria; whether the ban is a lawful violation of human rights of Twitter Inc., and Twitter Users in Nigeria. In this work, the words/terms; “Lawful Violation” and “Lawfully Violate” are used contextually to refer to rights that can be lawfully suspended, derogated and challenged by government, not minding their grammatical propriety.

Lawful Violation of Some Fundamental Human Rights:

Fundamental human rights are basic, elementary, mandatory, compulsory and unshakable entitlements of persons. Fundamental human rights are never purchased rather they are inborn and inbuilt on every person (human being or corporate being). List of Fundamental Human Rights In Nigeria.

There are not too many fundamental human rights in Nigeria. The few fundamental human rights in Nigeria are contained in the Constitution of Nigeria, 1999 and also in the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights. The African Charter on Human and People’s Rights has expanded the fundamental human rights in Nigeria as well as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

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Fundamental human rights are basic, elementary, mandatory, compulsory and unshakable entitlements of persons. Fundamental human rights are never purchased rather they are inborn and inbuilt on every person (human being or corporate being).

The fundamental human rights of persons in Nigeria are very important, however, some of them are not absolute and untouchable. The fundamental human rights are contained in the constitution of Nigeria. The same constitution of Nigeria clearly provides the few circumstances where and when the fundamental human rights can be derogated, diminished and suspended. However, there are also some fundamental human rights that cannot be lawfully violated. “Human Rights That Can Never Be Restricted Even In War, Pandemic or State of Emergency”.

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By the Constitution of Nigeria, fundamental human rights can be restricted only in two situations. The Constitution of Nigeria clearly listed and described the two (2) circumstances, that the government is allowed to “lawfully violate” some fundamental human rights. The 2 exemptions and circumstances where the constitution of Nigeria allows “lawful violation” (restriction, limitation and derogation) of some fundamental human rights, are;

1.)     Where there is a federal or state written law restricting fundamental human rights. However, the written law must be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society in the interest of defence, public good, public health or public safety. This particular situation/option/circumstance can only restrict the following six (6) fundamental human rights; Right to Private and Family Life, Right to Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion, Right to Freedom of Expression and the Press, Rights to Peaceful Assembly and Association, Right to Freedom of Movement and Right to Acquire and Own Immovable Property anywhere in Nigeria.

Clearly under this constitutional exemption, the government of Nigeria or a state government in Nigeria can diminish, restrict and suspend the six (6) fundamental human rights in Nigeria, through the enactment of written laws. The written laws must be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society and must be in the interest of defence, public good, public health or public safety.

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This means that the government of Nigeria can ban Twitter and any other business in Nigeria by enacting a law through the appropriate legislature. So, the National Assembly (the federal legislature) is expected to make a federal law that is democratic in nature and not a law that is born out of bad faith. It must be a law made to protect the interest of defence, public good, public health or public safety and not a law made for tribal, political or religious sentiments. It is on the basis of such federal law that the government of Nigeria can ban Twitter or any other business in Nigeria, irrespective of the fundamental human rights of the banned person (Twitter) and the fundamental human rights of the users and customers of such media organization. In the absence of such law, the ban on Twitter or any other organization in Nigeria may be unlawful, invalid, illegal and unconstitutional.  “Does The President/Governors Have Powers To Lockdown Any Part Of Nigeria Or Restrict Human Rights?”.

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2.)     Another constitutionally approved circumstances for suspension of human rights, is where the President of Nigeria makes a proclamation of state of emergency across Nigeria or for some specific states, subject to subsequent approval of such proclamation by the National Assembly. This is the second and last opportunity for some fundamental human rights to be restricted in Nigeria and can only be utilized by the Federal Government of Nigeria. This situation/option/circumstance can limit only the below eight (8) fundamental human rights: Rights to Life, Right to Personal Liberty, Right to Private and Family Life, Right to Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion, Right to Freedom of Expression and the Press, Rights to Peaceful Assembly and Association, Right to Freedom of Movement and Right to Acquire and Own Immovable Property anywhere in Nigeria.

Under this class, where there is calamity in any part of Nigeria, the President of Nigeria can proclaim a state of emergency on that part of Nigeria. When there is a state of emergency, the above listed eight (8) fundamental human rights can be lawfully suspended, derogated, diminished and restricted. So, if there is a state of emergency in any part of Nigeria, Twitter and any other social media platform covering that area can be banned and shut down by the Federal Government of Nigeria until after the state of emergency. Such ban is lawful irrespective of the fundamental human rights of the banned person and the fundamental human rights of the users and customers of the banned person.

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As at 5 June 2021 (the time that Twitter was banned in Nigeria), there was no state of emergency in any part of Nigeria. Hence, the Federal Government of Nigeria cannot peg the ban of Twitter on this constitutional exemption. By the way, the ban on Twitter and Twitter Users were made on social media (including the Twitter). Mere television/radio comments, policy documents/broadcasts, social media posts or public threats and pleas of President, Governor or their agents are not laws or regulations. At best, such threats/pleas are policy guidelines/directions and in Nigeria, policy guidelines of government are not laws. “Does The President/Governors Have Powers To Lockdown Any Part Of Nigeria Or Restrict Human Rights?”.

Conclusion: 

As shown above, some fundamental human rights are not absolute, they can be lawfully violated in certain circumstances. The circumstances could be by the enactment of a law or the proclamation of a state of emergency in any part of Nigeria.

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Clearly, the fundamental human rights associated with Twitter Inc. and Twitter Users are among the fundamental human rights that can be lawfully violated. Hence, the government of Nigeria can lawfully violate the fundamental human rights of Twitter Inc. and Twitter Users, especially: the Right to Private and Family Life, Right to Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion, Right to Freedom of Expression and the Press, Rights to Peaceful Assembly and Association.

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However, since there was no law or state of emergency, there is no constitutional basis for the violation of the fundamental human rights of Twitter and Twitter Users. The government of Nigeria has rather unlawfully and unconstitutionally banned Twitter and the users of Twitter and as such continues to violate the fundamental human rights of millions of users of Twitter in Nigeria.

My authorities, are:

1.Sections 14, 20, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 305, 318 and 319 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999.

2.Article 19 of the Universal Declaration for Human Rights.

3.Sections 6, 7, 8 and 22 of the National Human Rights Commission (Amendment) Act 2010.

4.Sections 1, 2, 5 and 6, the National Human Rights Commission (Amendment) Act 1995.

5.The judgment of the Supreme Court of Nigeria (on meaning and nature of fundamental human rights) in the case of RANSOME-KUTI & ORS v. AG FEDERATION & ORS (1985) LPELR-2940(SC)

6.The judgment of the Supreme Court of Nigeria (on meaning and nature of fundamental human rights) in the case of AGBAI & ORS v. OKOGBUE (1991) LPELR-225(SC).

7.The judgment of the Supreme Court of Nigeria (on when and why fundamental human rights can be restricted/suspended) in the case of DOKUBO-ASARI v. FRN (2007) LPELR-958(SC).

8.The Supreme Court judgment on “Meaning of Regulation” in the case of AG LAGOS STATE v. EKO HOTELS LTD & ANOR (2006) LPELR-3161(SC)

9.The Court of Appeal judgment on “Meaning of Executive Order/Regulation” in the case of ELEPHANT GROUP PLC v. NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISER & ANOR (2018) LPELR-45528(CA)

  1. The Supreme Court judgment on “Policy Documents/Guidance” in the case of COMPTROLLER GENERAL OF CUSTOMS & ORS v. COMPTROLLER ABDULLAHI B. GUSAU (2017) LPELR-42081(SC).
  2. The Supreme Court judgment on “Policy Documents/Guidance” in the case of UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC & ANOR. v. IFEOLUWA NIG. ENTERPRISES LTD (2007) 7 NWLR (Pt.1032) 71 at 84.
  3. Nimi Princewill and Stephanie Busari, “Nigeria bans Twitter after company deletes President Buhari’s tweet” (CNN, 5 June 2021) <https://edition.cnn.com/2021/06/04/africa/nigeria-suspends-twitter-operations-intl/index.html> accessed 7 June 2021
  4. Adeyemi Adepetun, Sunday Aikulola, Silver Nwokoro, Nkechi Onyedika-Ugoeze and Nnamdi Akpa, “Adeboye, Kumuyi defend Twitter use as envoys again reject ban” (The Guardian, 8 June 2021) <https://guardian.ng/news/adeboye-kumuyi-defend-twitter-use-as-envoys-again-reject-ban/> accessed 8 June 2021
  5. BBC, “Nigeria’s Twitter ban: Government orders prosecution of violators” (BBC, 6 June 2021) <https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-57368535> accessed 8 June 2021
  6. Alfred Olufemi, “After Twitter, Facebook deletes Buhari’s controversial ‘civil war’ post” (PremiumTimes, 4 June 2021) <https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/465653-just-in-after-twitter-facebook-deletes-buharis-controversial-civil-war-post.html> accessed 8 June 2021
  7. Anietie Ewang, “Nigeria’s Twitter Ban Follows Pattern of Repression” (Human Rights Watch, 7 June 2021) <https://www.hrw.org/news/2021/06/07/nigerias-twitter-ban-follows-pattern-repression> accessed 8 June 2021
  8. Onyekachi Umah, “Twitter vs. Nigeria; The Human Rights of Twitter Inc. and the Twitter Users” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 8 June 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/twitter-vs-nigeria-the-human-rights-of-twitter-inc-and-the-twitter-users/> accessed 9 June 2021.
  9. Onyekachi Umah, “Scarcity of Passport and the Government’s Violation of the Right of Movement” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 1 June 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/scarcity-of-passport-and-the-governments-violation-of-the-right-of-movement/> accessed 8 June 2021
  10. Onyekachi Umah, “An Alternative to Courts for Human Rights Cases” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 14 May 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/an-alternative-to-courts-for-human-rights-cases/> accessed 23 May 2021.
  11. Onyekachi Umah, “Details of State Offices of National Human Rights Commission” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 27 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/details-of-state-offices-of-national-human-rights-commission/> accessed 14 May 2021
  12. Onyekachi Umah, “Human Rights That Can Never Be Restricted Even In War, Pandemic or State of Emergency” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 2 April 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/human-rights-that-can-never-be-restricted-even-in-war-pandemic-or-state-of-emergency-daily-law-tips-tip-539-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 23 May 2021
  13. Onyekachi Umah, “Does The President/Governors Have Powers To Lockdown Any Part Of Nigeria Or Restrict Human Rights?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 1 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/does-the-president-governors-have-powers-to-lockdown-any-part-of-nigeria-or-restrict-human-rights-daily-law-tips-tip-537-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 14 May 2021
  14. Onyekachi Umah, “How to Report and Discipline Police Officers” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 25 May 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/how-to-report-and-discipline-police-officers/> accessed 27 May 2021
  15. Onyekachi Umah, “Warrant of Arrest: Contents and Issuance” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 19 April 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/warrant-of-arrest-contents-and-issuance/> accessed 25 May 2021.
  16. Onyekachi Umah, “12 Situations Where Police Officers Can Arrest Without Warrant” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 18 June 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/12-situations-where-police-officers-can-arrest-without-warrant/> accessed 25 May 2021.
  17. Onyekachi Umah, “Stripping Suspects Naked is Torture and it’s a Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 16 February 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/stripping-suspects-naked-is-torture-and-its-a-crime/> accessed 23 May 2021
  18. Onyekachi Umah, “Can Police Punish Unlawful Protesters?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 15 February 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/can-police-punish-unlawful-protesters/> accessed 23 May 2021
  19. Onyekachi Umah, “When Can A Protest Become A Riot?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 6 November 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/when-can-a-protest-become-a-riot/> 23 May 2021
  20. Onyekachi Umah, “#EndSarsNow: Punishment For Police (SARS) Torture” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 6 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/endsarsnow-punishment-for-police-sars-torture/> accessed 23 May 2021
  21. Onyekachi Umah, “#EndSarsNow: Nigeria Police Lacks Power To Punish” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 7 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/endsarsnow-nigeria-police-lacks-power-to-punish/> accessed 23 May 2021
  22. Onyekachi Umah, “#EndPoliceBrutality: How To Sue the Nigeria Police Force and Police Officers” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 14 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/endpolicebrutality-how-to-sue-the-nigeria-police-force-and-police-officers/> accessed 23 May 2021
  23. “Demand justice for Police Brutality in Nigeria” (Amnesty International) <https://www.amnesty.org/en/get-involved/take-action/nigeria-end-impunity-for-police-brutality-end-sars/> accessed 23 May 2021
  24. Onyekachi Umah, “Who Can Be Lawfully Killed In Nigeria?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 26 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/who-can-be-lawfully-killed-in-nigeria/> accessed 23 May 2021
  25. Femi Falana, “Police Permit Not Required For Rallies in Nigeria” (Premium Times, 23 January 2014) <https://www.premiumtimesng.com/opinion/153860-police-permit-required-rallies-nigeria.html> accessed 23 May 2021
  26. Onyekachi Umah, “Can A Person With A Nigerian Flag Be Shot Or Killed?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com,23 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/can-a-person-with-a-nigerian-flag-be-shot-or-killed/> accessed 23 May 2021
  27. Onyekachi Umah, “#EndPoliceBrutality: When & How Can Government Prohibit Protest In Nigeria?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 19 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/when-and-how-can-government-prohibit-protest-in-nigeria/> accessed 23 May 2021
  28. Onyekachi Umah, “#EndPoliceBrutality: The Right To Protest Is A Human Right.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 15 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/endpolicebrutality-the-right-to-protest-is-a-human-right/> accessed 23 May 2021
  29. Onyekachi Umah, “#EndPoliceBrutality: Do You Need A Police Permit To Protest?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 16 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/endpolicebrutality-do-you-need-a-police-permit-to-protest/> accessed 23 May 2021
  30. Onyekachi Umah, “Does The President/Governors Have Powers To Lockdown Any Part Of Nigeria Or Restrict Human Rights?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 31 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/does-the-president-governors-have-powers-to-lockdown-any-part-of-nigeria-or-restrict-human-rights-daily-law-tips-tip-537-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 23 May 2021
  31. Onyekachi Umah, “Duty of Government to Pay Compensation for Damages Caused By Riot.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 4 November 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/duty-of-government-to-pay-compensation-for-damages-caused-by-riot/> accessed 23 May 2021
  32. Onyekachi Umah, “Who Pays For Properties Damaged or Lost In A Riot In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 6 August 2018) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/daily-law-tips-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-tip-157-who-pays-for-properties-damaged-or-lost-in-a-riot-in-nigeria/> accessed 23 May 2021
  33. Onyekachi Umah, “List of Fundamental Human Rights In Nigeria.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 22 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/list-of-fundamental-human-rights-in-nigeria/> accessed 23 May 2021
  34. Chris Admin, “Onyekachi Umah Speaks To ChannelsTv On SARS & The New Police Act” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 9 November 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/onyekachi-umah-speaks-to-channelstv-on-sars-the-new-police-act/> accessed 23 May 2021
  35. Onyekachi Umah, “What Is The Punishment For Any Person Including Police Officers That Tortures Another Person” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 18 December 2018) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/daily-law-tips-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-tip-251-what-is-the-punishment-for-any-person-including-police-officers-that-tortures-another-person/> accessed 23 May 2021
  36. Onyekachi Umah, “Is Obeying “Orders From Above” a Defence for Torture in Nigeria” (LearnNIgerianLaws.com, 7 September 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/is-obeying-orders-from-above-a-defence-for-torture-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-409-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 23 May 2021
  37. Onyekachi Umah, “Being Present During Torture Without Participating In It, Is A Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 25 November 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/being-present-during-torture-without-participating-in-it-is-a-crime-daily-law-tips-tip-464-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 23 May 2021
  38. Onyekachi Umah, “New Punishment for Security Officers Involved in Torture in Nigeria.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 27 August 2017) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/new-punishment-for-security-officers-involved-in-torture-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-401-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 23 May 2021
  39. Onyekachi Umah, “Watching Torture but not Participating in it, is Torture.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 19 November 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/watching-torture-but-not-participating-in-it-is-torture-daily-law-tips-tip-460-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 23 May 2021
  40. Onyekachi Umah, “Any Security Agency’s Manual/Protocol that Allows Torture Even for National Security Cases is Unlawful and its Officers are Liable.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 11 September 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/any-security-agency-s-manual-protocol-that-allows-torture-even-for-national-security-cases-is-unlawful-and-its-officers-are-liable-daily-law-tips-tip-412-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 23 May 2021
  41. Onyekachi Umah, “Every Child has Right to a Rest and Play” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 27 May 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/every-child-has-a-right-to-rest-and-play/> accessed 30 May 2021
  42. Onyekachi Umah, “Child Marriage/Abuse Is A Crime (Rape): An Exposé On Laws Prohibiting Child Marriage” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 22 June 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/child-marriage-abuse-is-a-crime-rape-an-expose-on-laws-prohibiting-child-marriage-daily-law-tips-tip-593-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  43. Onyekachi Umah, “Forced Marriage Is An Offence In Nigeria.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 21 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/forced-marriage-is-an-offence-in-nigeria/> accessed 20 April 2021
  44. Onyekachi Umah, “Stripping Suspects Naked is Torture and it’s a Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 16 February 2021) <https:// 1 National Human Rights Commission, ‘State Offices” (NHRC) <http://www.nhrc.gov.ng/index.php/regional-offices#zamfara> accessed 27 October 2020
  45. Onyekachi Umah, “Details of State Offices of National Human Rights Commission” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 27 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/details-of-state-offices-of-national-human-rights-commission/> accessed 14 May 2021
  46. Onyekachi Umah, “Does The President/Governors Have Powers To Lockdown Any Part Of Nigeria Or Restrict Human Rights?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 1 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/does-the-president-governors-have-powers-to-lockdown-any-part-of-nigeria-or-restrict-human-rights-daily-law-tips-tip-537-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 14 May 2021
  47. Onyekachi Umah, “States & Areas Offices of Public Complaints Commission” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 20 November 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/states-areas-offices-of-public-complaints-commission/> accessed 14 May 2021
  48. Onyekachi Umah, “Complaints That The Public Complaints Commission Can Handle” (com, 30 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/complaints-that-the-public-complaints-commission-can-handle/> accessed 14 May 2021
  49. Stephen Ubimago, ‘Legal Aid Council: Facing Challenge Of Relevance Amid Poor Funding’ (Independent, 27 October 2020) <https://www.independent.ng/legal-aid-council-facing-challenge-of-relevance-amid-poor-funding/> accessed 14 May 2021
  50. Onyekachi Umah, “Abandonment Of Wife/Husband, Children Or Dependants Is A Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 3 December 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/abandonment-of-wife-husband-children-or-dependants-is-a-crime-daily-law-tips-tip-470-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  51. Onyekachi Umah, “How Lagos State Is Legislatively Ahead Of Other States” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 30 September 2020 <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/how-lagos-state-is-legislatively-ahead-of-other-states/> accessed 20 April  2021
  52. Onyekachi Umah, “The First Virtual Court Hearing Was In Borno State And Not In Lagos State.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 1 June 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/the-first-virtual-court-hearing-was-in-borno-state-and-not-in-lagos-state-daily-law-tips-tip-579-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  53. Onyekachi Umah, “Emotional, Verbal And Psychological Abuse Is Now Criminal Offences” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 3 September 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/emotional-verbal-and-psychological-abuse-is-now-criminal-offence/> accessed 28 April 2021
  54. Onyekachi Umah, “Forcing Wife to Stop Work is Now A Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 21 April 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/forcing-wife-to-stop-work-is-now-a-crime/https://learnnigerianlaws.com/forcing-wife-to-stop-work-is-now-a-crime/> accessed 26 April 2021
  55. Onyekachi Umah, “It Is Now An Offence To Force Wife/Husband To Stop Working” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 28 May 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/it-is-now-an-offence-to-force-wife-husband-to-stop-working-daily-law-tips-tip-340-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  56. Onyekachi Umah, “Seizing or Destroying the Property of a Spouse is a Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 2 March 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/seizing-or-destroying-the-property-of-a-spouse-is-a-crime/> accessed 20 April 2021
  57. Onyekachi Umah, “Hiding/Concealing Domestic Violence Is A Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 11 December 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/hiding-concealing-domestic-violence-is-a-crime/> accessed 20 April 2021
  58. Onyekachi Umah, “Domestic Violence Is A Crime Not A Family Dispute” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 10 December 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/domestic-violence-is-a-crime-not-a-family-dispute/> accessed 20 April 2021
  59. Onyekachi Umah, “Why Lagos State Needs A VAPP/SGBV Law” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 26 January 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/why-lagos-state-needs-a-vapp-sgbv-law/> accessed 20 April 2021
  60. Onyekachi Umah, “Lagos State Has No VAPP/SGBV Law !” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 8 December 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/lagos-state-has-no-vapp-sgbv-law/> accessed 20 April 2021
  61. Onyekachi Umah, “An Access To Criminal Laws In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 4 December 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/an-access-to-criminal-laws-in-nigeria/> accessed 20 April 2021
  62. Onyekachi Umah, “8 New Things About Rape Laws In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 3 December 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/8-new-things-about-rape-laws-in-nigeria/> accessed 20 April 2021
  63. Onyekachi Umah, “ChannelsTv Interviews Onyekachi Umah on Rape and the Laws.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 20 November 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/channelstv-interviews-onyekachi-umah-on-rape-and-the-laws/> accessed 20 April 2021
  64. Onyekachi Umah, “Can A Woman Be Charged With Rape” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 24 June 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/can-a-woman-be-charged-with-rape-daily-law-tips-tip-595-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-ll-m-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  65. Onyekachi Umah, “Can A Husband Rape His Wife” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 19 June 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/can-a-husband-rape-his-wife-daily-law-tips-tip-592-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  66. Onyekachi Umah, “When Is Seduction Or Indecent Dressing A Justification For Rape In Nigeria?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 18 June 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/when-is-seduction-or-indecent-dressing-a-justification-for-rape-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-591-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  67. Onyekachi Umah, “New Punishment For Rape In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 23 June 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/new-punishment-for-rape-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-594-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  68. Onyekachi Umah, “Rape Cannot Be Settled Out Of Court (No Room For Pay-Off/Forgiveness/Withdrawal Of Complaints” (LearnNigerianLaws.com,26 June 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/rape-cannot-be-settled-out-of-court-no-room-for-pay-off-forgiveness-withdrawal-of-complaints-daily-law-tips-tip-596-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  69. Onyekachi Umah, “A Female Too, Can BE Guilty Of Rape” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 13 December 2018) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/daily-law-tips-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-tip-248-a-female-too-can-be-guilty-of-rape-in-nigeria/> accessed 20 April 2021
  70. Onyekachi Umah, “Ages At Which Sexual Intercourse With Consent Will Amount To Rape” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 20 February 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/ages-at-which-sexual-intercourse-with-consent-will-amount-to-rape-daily-law-tips-tip-509-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  71. Onyekachi Umah, “How To Prove Rape In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 2 July 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/how-to-prove-rape-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-363-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  72. Onyekachi Umah, “Can a Married Woman Inherit Her Parents’ Property?”, (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 27 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/can-a-married-woman-inherit-her-parents-property-daily-law-tips-tip-535-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  73. Onyekachi Umah, “Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting/Elongation, Breasts Ironing And Forced Marriage Are Now Criminal Offences In Nigeria” (Daily Law Tips [443]) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/female-genital-mutilation-cutting-elongation-breasts-ironing-and-forced-marriage-are-now-criminal-offences-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-443-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  74. Onyekachi Umah, “Harmful Widowhood Practices (Traditions) Are Illegal In Nigeria” (Daily Law Tips [Tip 589]) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/harmful-widowhood-practices-traditions-are-illegal-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-589-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  75. Onyekachi Umah, “Forceful Isolation/Separation Of Family Members/Friends Is Now An Offence In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 22 June 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/forceful-isolation-separation-of-family-members-friends-is-now-an-offence-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-356-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  76. Onyekachi Umah, “Abolished Anti-Women Custom of Onitsha People of Anambra State, Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws, 10 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/abolished-anti-women-custom-of-onitsha-people-of-anambra-state-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-522-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  77. Onyekachi Umah, “Citizen By Marriage Is Discriminatory and Against Nigerian Women”, (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 14 September 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/citizen-by-marriage-is-discriminatory-and-against-nigerian-women/> accessed 20 April 2021
  78. Onyekachi Umah, “Abolished Anti-Women Custom of Yoruba People of Nigeria”, (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 11 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/abolished-anti-women-custom-of-yoruba-people-of-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-523-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  79. Onyekachi Umah, “Can a Married Woman Inherit Her Parents Property?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 27 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/can-a-married-woman-inherit-her-parents-property-daily-law-tips-tip-535-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  80. Onyekachi Umah, “Approval For Marriage Of Female Officers/Staff Is Unconstitutional and Discriminatory”, (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 23 September 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/approval-for-marriage-of-female-officers-staff-is-unconstitutional-and-discriminatory/> accessed 20 April 2021
  81. Onyekachi Umah, “It Is An Offence To Chase Out Wife/Husband From A Home Or Even Attempt To Do So” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 17 May 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/it-is-an-offence-to-chase-out-wife-husband-from-a-home-or-even-attempt-to-do-so-daily-law-tips-tip-333-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  82. Onyekachi Umah, “Examining Brutalization of House Helps in Nigeria. (An Exposé on Anti-Cruel Labour Laws in Nigeria)” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 3 August 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/examining-brutalization-of-house-helps-in-nigeria-an-expose-on-anti-cruel-labour-laws-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-623-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-ll-m-aciarbuk/> accessed 27 April 2021
  83. Onyekachi Umah, “11 States That Do Not Protect Children In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 31 May 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/11-states-that-do-not-protect-children-in-nigeria/> accessed 31 May 2021
  84. Pic Credit: icirnigeria.org

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