DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 206)
“It Is Illegal To Ban Movement of Any Person In Nigeria Without Court Order”.

Every person in Nigeria has a right to move around Nigeria and leave/exit Nigeria whenever. It is an inalienable fundamental human right of Nigerians and foreigners inside Nigeria. Such right can only be limited by an order of court. Hence no security agency or government organisation can violate, limit, vary or qualify such right, restrict or ban the movement of any person in or out of Nigeria.

My authority is section 41 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria,1999.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 189)
“”Dangerous Flying” Is An Offence In Nigeria.”

It is an offence to fly an aircraft in such a manner as to cause danger to any person or property on land or water in Nigeria. It is an offence punishable with imprisonment for not less than 2 years or a fine not less than #1 Million Naira or both. The pilot or any other person in charge of the aircraft as well as the owner of the aircraft are liable on summary conviction.

My authority is section 55 of Civil Aviation Act, 2006.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 179)
“It Is An Offence To Send Information To Smugglers”.

It is a crime for any person to send information from any part of Nigeria to any other person outside Nigeria in connection with unlawful importation or exportation of goods into or out of Nigeria. It is punishable with a fine of Two Hundred Naira or 2 years imprisonment or both as well as the confiscation of any device, equipment or gadget used in sending such information.

My authority is section 77 of the Customs and Excise Management Act.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 164)
“Goods That Are Exempted From VAT Payment In Nigeria”

You are not to pay Valued Added Tax (VAT) on any of the goods mentioned below:

1. All medical and pharmaceutical products
2. Basic food items
3. Books and educational materials
4. Baby products
5. Fertilisers, locally produced agricultural and veterinary medicine, farming machinery and farming transportation equipment.
6. All exports
7. Plant and machinery imported for use in the Export Processing Zone
8. Plant, machinery and equipment purchased for utilization of gas in down-stream petroleum operations
9. Tractors, ploughs and agricultural equipment and implements purchased for agricultural purposes.
10. Proceeds from the disposal of Short Term Federal Government of Nigeria Securities and Bonds
11. Proceeds from the disposal of Short-Term State, Local Government and Corporate Bonds (including supra-natural Bond).

My authorities are sections 2 and 3 of the Value Added Tax Act as well as it’s First Schedule.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 162)
“You Cannot Own Land In Nigeria.”

All lands in Nigeria, including your ancestral homes are vested on the 36 States Governors and the Federal Government of Nigeria. Hence, No person can own any land in Nigeria. At best, a person can be granted a Right of Occupancy and issued a Certificate of Occupancy for a specified period, often 99 years. Such a person is an Occupant and not Owner of the land and as such expected to pay Rent (Ground Rent) to the land owner(state government).

My authority are sections 1, 5, 10, 15,17 and 28 of the Land Use Act, 1978.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 157)
“Who Pays For Properties Damaged or Lost In A Riot In Nigeria”.

Most times, where there is a riot, properties are damaged, stolen and lost. It is not the duty of owners of such properties to suffer and pay for the effect of a riot. Rather Government pays compensation to owners of such properties. The compensation is subject to the consent of the Minister of Finance.

My authority is the Riot (Damages) Act, 1963.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 154)
“You Cannot Enforce A Judgement After 2 Years and 6 Years Against A Party and His Representatives Respectively.”

Where judgement is given by a court, the judgment creditor has 2 years to enforce such judgment against the judgement debtor. Where a judgement creditor intends to enforce judgment against any representative of a judgment debtor, should be done within 6 years. Also note that were time elapses, court can grant leave.

My authorities are Order 4, Rule 8 of the Judgements (Enforcement) Rules and section 94 of the Sheriffs and Civil Process Act.

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COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARK, INDUSTRIAL DESIGNS & PATENT REGISTRATION;

PROSPECTS FOR LAWYERS IN NIGERIA

By 

ONYEKACHI UMAH, ESQ., LL.M, ACIArb(UK)

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.,08037665878

Founder, LearnNigerianLaws.com

Convener, Sabi Law Lecture Series

 

DELIVERED ON SUNDAY, 29 JULY 2018 (7:00-9:00PM)

AT THE LAW, ETHICS AND PRACTISE (LEaP) WHATSAPP GROUP FOR LAWYERS AND LAW STUDENTS

9th SABI LAW LECTURE SERIES. 

 

LECTURE CONTENTS:

           

      0. Profile of Onyekachi Umah

  1. How “Property-enough” is Intellectual Property?
  2. IP Market Stakeholders
  3. Opportunities for Lawyers In IP Market
  4. SabiLawMaster’s Interlude
  5. Ways to Strategically Position Yourself in IP Market
  6. How to Get IP Briefs
  7. Challenges in IP Market and their Solutions 
  8. Conclusion

Download For FREE!

Full text of this lecture can be downloaded via the link below in PDF format.  

THE LINK IS AFTER THE COMMENT BOX, BELOW. 

 

 

 

DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 145)
“Power Of Attorney Can Not Transfer Ownership/Title Of A Property”

Power of Attorney is an instrument that merely delegates, extends and offers limited powers to a person to do something. It cannot and does not transfer, vest, confer or alienate the title and ownership of its Donor. It is wrong to use or have only a power of attorney as prove of ownership of title. Though some states allow the registration of power of attorney, it is actually registered as an instrument allowing and authorising execution of another instrument for alienation, sale and transfer of ownership. So, Deed of Sale, Deed Of Assignment, Deed Of Conveyance and Deed Of Transfer are better options.

My authorities are section 2 of Land Instruments Registration Law, Vol. 3, Laws Of Ogun State, 2006 and similar laws in other states of the Federation as well as the cases of Ude V. Nwara (1993)2 NWLR Part 278, 647 and Olorunfemi V. Nigeria Educational Bank Limited (2003) NWLR Part 812,p.1.


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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 144)
“Who Can Inherit Property Of A Dead Person In Nigeria.”

“WILL” is not an invitation to death rather a strict instruction on how one’s property should be shared when he is dead. Where there is no “WILL”, the following persons can inherit the property of their dead ones in this particular order of priority:
1. Wife/Husband of the deceased

2. Where there is no Wife/Husband, then the children of the deceased.

3. Where the children died during the lifetime of deceased leaving grandchildren, then the said grand children of the deceased.

4.Where there is no child, then the Mother/Father of the deceased.

5. Where there is no Mother/Father, then the Brothers and Sisters of the deceased.

6. Where the brothers and sisters of the deceased died during the lifetime of the deceased, then the children of the late brothers and sisters of the deceased.

7. Where there are no children of brothers or sisters, then the step-brothers and step-sisters of the deceased.

8. Where the step-brothers and step-sisters, of the deceased died during the lifetime of the deceased, then the children of the step-brothers and step-sisters of the deceased.

9.Where there are no children of step-brothers and step-sisters, then the Grand-Father and Grand-Mother of the deceased.

10.Where there are no grand-fathers and grand-mothers, then the direct Uncles and Aunts of the deceased.

11. Where there are no Uncles and Aunts, then the creditors of the deceased.

12. Where there are no Creditors, then the Administrator-General of the State.

My authorities are section 49(1) of Administration of Estates Law, Lagos State and similar laws in other states of the Federation and the case of Williams V. Ogundipe (2006) ALL FWLR (part 327)p.540.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 143)
“An Ordinary Person Can Arrest A Criminal Suspect Even Without A Warrant In Nigeria”.

Just like Police Officers, an ordinary person can arrest any person reasonably suspected of having committed a felony(a crime punishable with 3 years imprisonment or more).
In such circumstances, you don’t need a police officer to arrest such a suspect and if in arresting such a person, you threaten or assault such person, you will not be liable. After an arrest, you are to handover such person to a police officer or nears police station.

My authorities are section 12 of Criminal Procedure Act, section 28(d) of Criminal Procedure Code and the Supreme Court Judgment in the case of Nweke V. The State (1965) 1 ALL NLR 114.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 140)
“Right Against Confiscation of Property In Nigeria.”

Every person in Nigeria has a fundamental human right to acquire a property in any part of Nigeria as well as a right not have its property confiscated or compulsorily acquired. No property can be confiscated for any reason whatsoever by any person, body, agency or government. Note that it is only a court of law that can order the forfeiture, confiscation or takeover of any person’s property.

My authorities are sections 43 and 44 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 139)
“Persons Exempted From National Youth Service Corps in Nigeria”.

Every Nigerian graduate is mandated to enrol for a compulsory one year national service.
Conditions that may exempt a Nigerian graduate from National Youth Service Corps, includes;
1. The person is over thirty (30) years old at the point of graduation.
2. The person served in the Nigerian Army or Police for more than 9 months.
3. The person is a staff of State Security Service and National Intelligence Agency.
4. The person holds a National award.

My authority; section 2 of National Youth Service Corps Act.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 132)
“The Condition For A Landlord To Refund His Tenant For Repairs Made On A Rented Apartment In Nigeria”.

It is not in all cases that a landlord is to refund his tenant for repairs made by the tenant on his rented apartment. The condition for refund is existence of a WRITTEN CONSENT. There must be a written consent by a landlord to a tenant, authorising tenant to repair his rented apartment before such tenant can seek a refund/set-off of money spent on such repairs. Courts in Nigeria will not order refund of money spent on repairs by a tenant unless there is a written authority from landlord consenting to such repairs. Oral agreements are not allowed!

My authorities; section 15 of Recovery of Premises Act, Laws of Nigeria(Abuja) and other similar laws across 36 states of Nigeria.

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{jcomments on}DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 129)
“Persons that are Exempted From Obeying Traffic Signs and Signals In Nigeria”.

Certain persons are exempted from obeying traffic signs and signals in any part of Nigeria although they must drive their vehicles with due care to safety of other road users. Such persons are drivers of fire-fighting vehicles, rescue vehicles or ambulances.
Kindly note that drivers of bullion vans, politicians and government officials are not mentioned in the exemption.

My authority; Regulation 158 of the National Road Traffic Regulations, 2012.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 127)
“Electricity Meter and Rights of Electricity Consumers in Nigeria”.

1. Meter Assets Provider (MAP) has a duty to repair or replace a customer’s faulty meter within 2 working days.
2. The repair or replacement of faulty meter shall be at no cost to the customer within the amortisation period, if the damage is not his fault.
3. Where MAP fails to repair or replace a meter within 2 days, the customer shall not pay metering service charge/fee for that period.
4. Where MAP is unable to provide a replacement meter, electricity bill will be calculated on average of the last 3 months bills.
5. A relocating customer within a franchise area shall apply to the Distribution Company(DISCO) for transfer of services and unspent energy credits.
6. Meter shall to be installed free of charge but customer will be charged for metering service every month via energy bills.
7. Customer can elect to pay for meter and installation in full upfront/ahead of meter installation to avoid monthly metering service charge.
8. Where a customer elects to pay for a meter, same shall be installed at his premises within 10 working days of his payment.
9. Meters and metering equipment shall be insured by MAP.
10. Within 120 days from 3rd April 2018, the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission will issue an Order limiting chargeable bills of unmetered customers to avoid outrageous estimated billing systems.

My authorities: Regulations 1, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20 and 31 of the Meter Assets Provider Regulations 2018 (Regulation Number:NERC-R-112) and section 96 of the Electric Power Sector Reform Act.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 124)
“It Is Not a Crime to Be a Debtor In Nigeria”.

Being a debtor is not a Crime in Nigeria and Debt is not an offence in any part of Nigeria. Even failure to pay debt after such was demanded is also not an offence so far as there is no intention to defraud or commit an offence. No security agency including Nigeria Police, EFCC, State Security Services, Nigeria Army and vigilante groups has right to intervene, arrest, harass or detain a debtor or order repayment of debt. You recover debt by engaging a lawyer.

My authority: Section 2 of Criminal Code Act and section 4 of Penal Code Act.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 123)
“A Lawyer’s Bank Account is Exempted from EFCC, SCUML, NFIU and Police Registration/Clearance.”

Most ignorant banks will request that a lawyer obtains a proof of registration with Special Control Unit Against Money Laundering (SCUML) before a law firm’s bank account can be created; this is to enable EFCC and other agencies monitor such accounts easily.

This is wrong and illegal. Special Control Unit Against Money Laundering(SCUML), the National Financial Intelligence Unit (NFIU), the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) have no right to demand registration and seek regulation of lawyers, their law practice and management of clients accounts.

Don’t let any bank or security agency muscle you into illegality. Enjoy your lawyers privileges!

See sections of 192 and 195 of Evidence Act, sections 5 and 25 of Money Laundering (Prohibition) Act, Rule 19(1) of the Rules of Professional Conduct for Legal Practitioners 2007 and the Federal High Court decision on Registered Trustees of Nigerian Bar Association V. AGF & CBN (Suit No: FHC/BS/173/2014) And the Court of Appeal decision in the case of CBN V. NBA & AGF (Appeal No: CA/A/202/2015)

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 122)
“Land Transactions in Nigeria Are Invalid Without Written Consent of State Governors”.

All Lands in Nigeria belong to respective state governors of the 36 states in Nigeria. Any sale, transfer, mortgage, change of title, tenancy, assignment, power of attorney or gift of land or sharing of land of a deceased person in any state in Nigeria without the written consent of the Governor of the state or his authorised appointee is invalid, null and void.

See sections 21, 22, 23, 24,25 and 26 of the Land Use Act, 1978.

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Our own Onyekachi Umah will be delivering a lecture on “Electricity Law Practice in Nigeria; Role of Young Lawyers” at a One Day Workshop organised for Corps Legal Aid Scheme, FCT, Abuja. It will be at Old Parade Ground, Garki, Abuja, FCT on Monday 25 June, 2018 by 9am. Lecture materials of this #SabiLawLecture (Lecture 004) will be available on this website!

 
Contents of the lecture;
1. History of Nigerian Electricity sector 
2. Legal framework for Electricity law
3. Regulators and Stakeholders for Electricity law 
4. Role of Young Lawyers
 
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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 119)
“Equal Salaries for Male and Female Employees”

Female employees are to be paid well and as much as male employees. Employees of equal rank should receive same and equal salaries and welfare packages. It is a breach of fundamental human right to under pay an employee just because of sex of the employee.

See section 42 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 118)
“Stamps and Seals of Courts and Commissioners for Oath Are Not Needed for Agreements To Be Valid.”

An agreement(Contract) between parties, no matter the number of parties, the value of subject matter or nature of same does not need stamps and seals of courts, commissioners for oath or other staff to be valid and enforceable. Hence, there is no need to take any executed agreements (including land agreements) to court for stamps of Court Registrars and staff of court.

See the decided case of Okafor V. Titilope & Ors (2018) LPELR-44385 (CA).

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 117)
“Use/Demand for Foreign Currency in Nigeria is a Crime”.

The only allowed currency in Nigeria is Naira. It is an offence punishable with 6 months imprisonment or fine of #50,000.00 for any person(Nigerian or Foreigner), business, professional, school, church, hotel, company, consultant, agency or group, etc (whether locally or internationally owned) to pay, offer, demand, receive or use any currency other than Naira in Nigeria. The Central Bank of Nigeria has power to exempt and has in writing exempted some government agencies from this law.

See section 20 of The Central Bank of Nigeria (Establishment) Act.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 116)
“You are Responsible for the Safety of Your Guests, Invitees and Visitors”.

Your are responsible for any injury/damage suffered by your lawful guests, invitees, visitors, audience, participants and congregation in your occupied house, church, wedding, party, show, concert, seminar, crusade or rally venue. You owe a duty of care to such persons for inviting them and they can sue for damages. Ensure safety is guaranteed at all times.

See sections 7 to 12 of the Law Reform (Torts) Law 1961 of Lagos State, similar laws of other states and the Common Law Rule.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 115)
“Arrest by Proxy (Arrest of a Person for an Offence of Another Person) is illegal and Unconstitutional in Nigeria”.

It is illegal for police or any security agency to arrest any person for an offence committed or suspected to have been committed by another person. No matter the offence and the conduct of a suspect, his family members, friends, associates and mates cannot be arrested, charged or tried for his actions. Criminal liabilities cannot be assumed, transferred or inherited.

See section 35 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 114)
“New Age Limits For President, Federal and State Legislators In Nigeria”.

Recently the age limits for elective positions in Nigeria were reduced to allow younger Nigerians participate in Politics.

The positions and new ages are:
President is 30 years
Member of House of Representatives is 25 years
Member of State House of Assembly is 25 years

See sections 65, 106 and 113 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 and sections 1 to 5 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (Fourth Alteration, No.27) Act 2018.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 112)
“Women Just Like Men Can Be Surety For Bail of Criminal Suspects and Accused Persons in Nigeria”.

Don’t let police officers and court staff deceive you, woman just like man is a suitable surety. The argument that women are property of men/husbands and as such can’t be surety is invalid. At all times, both men and women are equal before our laws.

See section 42 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 110)
“Nigerian Police Cannot Be Used For or Be Part for Debt Recovery”

Nigerian Police Force is created to protect life and property as well as to maintain law and order. Nigerian Police, police officers and police station are not allowed by law to recover debt or threaten/arrest debtors to pay their creditors. Owing debt is not a crime. Victims can sue Nigeria police and their creditors.

Section 214 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and section 4 of the Police Act.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 104)
“Compulsory Treatment of Victims of Gunshot Wounds in Public and Private Hospitals in Nigeria”.

All medical doctors, nurses, health workers, hospitals and medical outfits across Nigeria whether public or private, are by law mandated to receive and immediately treat all persons with gunshot wounds whether or not such person paid money. Hence there is no need to demand for police or security report/clearance. Doing otherwise is an offence.

See sections 1 and 3 of the Compulsory Treatments and Care of Victims of Gunshot Act, 2017.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 102)
“A Single Police Officer /Traffic Warden Cannot Prove Over-speeding in Nigeria”.

No driver or rider in Nigeria can be convicted for over-speeding based only on the evidence of one witness, not minding that the witness is a Police Officer, Federal Road Safety Corp or of any agency. This will be different where such Officer witnessed and detected such through a device for recording speed.

See section 203 of the Evidence Act.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 97)
“Defamation is a Criminal Offence in Nigeria”.

The publication of words that can cause hatred, contempt, ridicule or damage to the reputation or profession of a person(s) to the hearing of such person(s) or a third party without justification is a criminal offence aside being a tort.

See sections 373, 374, 375 & 376 of Criminal Code, sections 391, 392, 393, 394 and 395 of Penal Code and section 6 of Libel Act, 1843.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 91)
“An Employment without a Written Employment Agreement is an Offence”.

Every worker in Nigeria is supposed to be issued a Written Contract of Employment by his employer stating employer’ name, employee’s name and address, place of work, salary/wage, holidays and duration of employment and needed notice for termination of employment. Doing otherwise is an offence punishable with #800.00 for a first offender.

See sections 7 and 21 of Labour Act.

Happy Labour Day 2018 to us all in Nigeria ??. To mark the day there will be no daily law tips on 1st May, 2018.

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 90)
“A NIGERIAN CITIZEN OTHER THAN BY BIRTH CANNOT HAVE MORE THAN A DUAL CITIZENSHIP”.

Nigerian citizen other than by birth cannot become a citizen of another country other than by birth. Such Nigerian citizen forfeits his citizenship if he attempts or obtains citizenship not by birth from another country.

See section 28 (1) of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. ??

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DAILY LAW TIPS
by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
(Tip 40)

Court processes and other legal documents can be validly served on any person on a Saturday. Saturdays are not holidays in Nigeria like Sundays. Saturdays count!

See the decided case of ETSAKO WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCIL V. ISA (2014) 8 CLRN or (2104) LPCLR -23023 SC.
Also see section 15(5) Interpretation Act.

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DAILY LAW TIPS 

            by Onyekachi Umah, Esq.

                  (Tip 38)

Yes, the Pension Reform Act (PENCOM) applies to all Public servants, Private Sector Employers with 15 or more employees.

See Section 2(1) and (2) of Pension Reform Act.

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DAILY LAW TIPS 
            by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.
                  (Tip 37)
 
Case of divorce or dissolution of marriage can only be filed and heard in a State High Court while a case for custody of a child can be filed and heard in a Magistrate Court or a State High Court. See section 2 of Matrimonial Causes Act and section 150 of Child’s Rights Act.
 
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DAILY LAW TIPS 

            by Onyekachi Umah,Esq.

                  (Tip 34)

 

It is a criminal offence punishable with Life Imprisonment for any person to deal, package, hawk, sell or trade on Petroleum or petroleum products without license.  See section 1(17) of the Miscellaneous Offences Act.

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Hello, am glad to have your eyes on this page. On last edition I wrote on “Safest Means of Purchasing rural Land” which dwelt on the purchase of land under customary law which often occurs in our villages. I highlighted the legal requirements and steps to a successful land transaction under such law. Now is time for us to take a deep dive into land transaction under our statutory law. It is for land transactions in our towns and cities. I urge you to learn as much as you can and save yourself embarrassment.  

Just as the human fingers vary, so do human status, situations and endeavours vary. At different times, locations and situations in life you are either a tenant or a landlord or even both. You may be the owner of your residence while you are a tenant in your office complex. They can never be a tenant without a landlord. For more on landlords rights and duties, read my article; RIGHTS OF A LANDLORD. Due to the African undue attachment to land and landed property so much attention and superiority is added to the status of “Landlordship”. This makes up for the ill treatment the so called landlords do met out to their often poor tenants. 

No matter how bad a law is, until it is changed by theNational Assembly of Nigeria it remains a binding and valid law. Cars, vehicles, trucks and tricycle etc are helpful  tools and in some cases marks of affluence in the society. Cars are made for good of man but just the way hunting-guns can hunt man so can cars be used to perpetrate evil. When at a glance the occupants of a vehicle cannot be seen, then such a car can be used to convey unauthorised persons and goods.

The most popular document in land transactions in Nigeria is“Power of Attorney”. Purchasers and sellers of land have given more powers than the law provided for to power of attorney. Power of attorney is merely a document which authorises a person to act for another as an agent. It is a document of delegation. In it, an owner of a right, power or title can transfer his rights to another person to exercise for him. The owner of the right is referred to as “Donor” while the person to whom it is donated to is referred to as a “donee”/ “attorney”. A power of attorney can be with or without a seal (a red wax or rubber sticker and the words “signed, sealed and delivered”).

NO MAN IS AN ISLAND says a cliché; no wonder man will always need man to survive perfectly. Man is a rational being that needs the calculated aid of his follow beings to perfect his environment and achieve desirable varying goals. Consequently man and his brothers, sisters, relatives, friends, associates, colleagues, mates, well-wishers and neighbours often do come together to form and cement a common platform and frontier to protect and project their own interest and belief and that of their community at large. Such formations often give rise to several cultural associations, religious bodies, clubs, social association, educational bodies, sporting association and charitable bodies (NGOs). Unlike in the past days of military regime, today the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria provides safeguards and promotes our inalienable Right to Associate, in Nigeria.

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