Daily Law Tips (290)

Every weekday, we give free short tips on laws, rights, duties, procedures and legal remedies available in Nigeria (#DailyLawTips). And, on Mondays, our daily law tips focus only on Criminal Justice (#CriminalJusticeMonday). We share our DAILY LAW TIPS for free on our Website (www.LearnNigerianLaws.com), Instagram, Facebook, Whatsapp and Twitter accounts (@LearnNigerianLaws) to promote understanding of law.   

WHAT IS THE PERIOD WITHIN WHICH YOU MUST BE CONNECTED TO ELECTRICITY IN ANY PART OF NIGERIA. DAILY LAW TIPS (Tip 316) By Onyekachi Umah, Esq., LLM. ACIArb(UK).

It is the responsibility of electricity Distribution Companies (DisCo) to connect any person in any part of Nigeria to electricity.
Where an existing customer has paid and provided needed information for supply of electricity, the DisCo in charge of the area must supply electricity to such customer within 48 hours.

Where an already existing customers desires to be connected to electricity, such customer is expected to write an application to the DisCo in charge of his area and also forward copy of his means of identification. Such customer must also accept the terms and conditions of the DisCo as well as pay all connection charges or security deposit requested by the DisCo and approved from Nigerian Electricity Regulation Commission (NERC). Where you are not sure of charges demanded by an DisCO, please write to NERC for confirmation, it is your right.

My authorities are Regulations 1, 2 and 14 of the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission’s Connection and Disconnection Procedures for Electricity Services, 2007.

You can download for free the above mentioned laws/regulations with the link below after the comment box.

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*POWERS OF PRESIDENT OF NIGERIA TO CONTROL AND ACCESS ANY INTERNET, SOCIAL MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY IN NIGERIA.* DAILY LAW TIPS (Tip 315) By Onyekachi Umah, Esq., LLM. ACIArb(UK).

Gone are the days of free, safe and unguarded internet and communication in Nigeria. The President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, has powers to declare any computer, website, system or data as vital and critical National Information Infrastructure to Nigeria. And as such, he regulates and makes guidelines and rules for their use, protection, access and control in any part of Nigeria. The President can make such declaration by an Executive Order published in the Federal Gazette upon recommendation of the National Security Adviser. And such Presidential Order empowers the National Security Adviser To audit and inspect at any time any device or system declared as critical national information infrastructure.

My authorities are sections 3, 58 and 59 of the Cybercrimes (Prohibition, Prevention, Etc.) Act, 2015.

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NOTE: Sharing or modifying or publishing this publication without giving credit to Onyekachi Umah, Esq. and “LearnNigerianLaws.com” is a criminal breach of copyright and will be prosecuted. Please share this publication till it gets to those that need it most. Save a Nigerian today!

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*REMOVAL/DESTRUCTION OF ELECTRICITY METER IS A CRIME IN NIGERIA.* DAILY LAW TIPS (Tip 314) By Onyekachi Umah, Esq., LLM. ACIArb(UK).

Since 1983, unlawful removal, disconnection, damage, tampering or interference with any electrical fittings, meter or appliances used for generation, transmission, distribution or sell of electricity in any part of Nigeria, has been a criminal offence.
The above offence is punishable with imprisonment for not more than 21 years.

My authorities are sections 1(10) and 5 of the Miscellaneous Offences Act, 1983.

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NOTE: Sharing or modifying or publishing this publication without giving credit to Onyekachi Umah, Esq. and “LearnNigerianLaws.com” is a criminal breach of copyright and will be prosecuted. Please share this publication till it gets to those that need it most. Save a Nigerian today!

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*HOW PERSONS BORN BY NON-NIGERIANS CAN BE NIGERIAN CITIZENS BY BIRTH. *DAILY LAW TIPS (Tip 313) by Onyekachi Umah, Esq., LLM. ACIArb(UK)

Firstly, any person born in any where in the world by any Nigerian parent is automatically a Nigerian.
Any person born in any part of Nigeria, by parents who are not Nigerians, is automatically a Nigerian by birth if any of the grand parents of such a person is/was a Nigerian, whether such grand parent is dead or alive.

My authorities are sections 25, 31 and 319 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999.

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Feel free to reach the author, ask questions or make inquiries on this topic or any other via This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or +2348037665878.

NOTE: Sharing or modifying or publishing this publication without giving credit to Onyekachi Umah, Esq. and “LearnNigerianLaws.com” is a criminal breach of copyright and will be prosecuted. Please share this publication till it gets to those that need it most. Save a Nigerian today!

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*HOW TO MAKE POWER OF ATTORNEY TO BE GENUINE AND ACCEPTABLE.* DAILY LAW TIPS (Tip 312) by Onyekachi Umah, Esq., LLM. ACIArb(UK)

Power of attorney can be written for any purpose. It is an authority/consent given by any person to anyone to do or not to do anything on behalf of the giver of such consent.
Courts MUST presume any document claiming to be power of attorney to be a genuine power of attorney if such power of attorney was signed and authenticated by a Notary Public or any Judge or Magistrate, consul or Nigeria representative or Presidential representative. Once a power of attorney is signed and authenticated by any of the persons mentioned above, such document will be accepted by any court as a good evidence of power of attorney.

My authorities are sections 150 and 259 of the Evidence Act, 2011.

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Feel free to reach the author, ask questions or make inquiries on this topic or any other via This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or +2348037665878.

NOTE: Sharing or modifying or publishing this publication without giving credit to Onyekachi Umah, Esq. and “LearnNigerianLaws.com” is a criminal breach of copyright and will be prosecuted. Please share this publication till it gets to those that need it most. Save a Nigerian today!

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This publication is the writer’s view not a legal advice and does not create any form of relationship. You may reach the writer for more information.

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*SURPRISINGLY, POLICE OFFICER MUST WITNESS ALL COMMUNICATION BETWEEN LAWYER AND ARRESTED SUSPECT. * DAILY LAW TIPS (Tip 311) by Onyekachi Umah, Esq., LLM. ACIArb(UK)

Although, lawyers are authorised to have private and privileged communication with clients, where a lawyer is to communicate with an arrested suspect, such communication or legal advice must be done in the presence of a police officer or any officer of the security agency having custody of the arrested suspect.

My authorities are sections 14(3), 494 and 495 of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015 and other similar laws across States in Nigeria.

You can download for free the above mentioned laws/regulations with the link below after the comment box.

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Feel free to reach the author, ask questions or make inquiries on this topic or any other via This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or +2348037665878.

NOTE: Sharing or modifying or publishing this publication without giving credit to Onyekachi Umah, Esq. and “LearnNigerianLaws.com” is a criminal breach of copyright and will be prosecuted. Please share this publication till it gets to those that need it most. Save a Nigerian today!

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This publication is the writer’s view not a legal advice and does not create any form of relationship. You may reach the writer for more information.

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*SURPRISINGLY, POLICE OFFICER MUST WITNESS ALL COMMUNICATION BETWEEN LAWYER AND ARRESTED SUSPECT. * DAILY LAW TIPS (Tip 311) by Onyekachi Umah, Esq., LLM. ACIArb(UK)

Although, lawyers are authorised to have private and privileged communication with clients, where a lawyer is to communicate with an arrested suspect, such communication or legal advice must be done in the presence of a police officer or any officer of the security agency having custody of the arrested suspect.

My authorities are sections 14(3), 494 and 495 of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015 and other similar laws across States in Nigeria.

You can download for free the above mentioned laws/regulations with the link below after the comment box.

#CriminalJusticeMonday
#DailyLawTips
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Feel free to reach the author, ask questions or make inquiries on this topic or any other via This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or +2348037665878.

NOTE: Sharing or modifying or publishing this publication without giving credit to Onyekachi Umah, Esq. and “LearnNigerianLaws.com” is a criminal breach of copyright and will be prosecuted. Please share this publication till it gets to those that need it most. Save a Nigerian today!

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This publication is the writer’s view not a legal advice and does not create any form of relationship. You may reach the writer for more information.

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*HOW TO AVOID CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE FOR ELECTRONIC EVIDENCE.* DAILY LAW TIPS (Tip 310) by Onyekachi Umah, Esq., LLM. ACIArb(UK)

With the enactment of the Evidence Act, 2011, it is now easy to tender and use documents produced by computer in courts across Nigeria. The condition for such use is enshrined in section 84 of the Evidence Act and is a certificate of compliance showing that such document was authentically generated from a reliable computer in the ordinary cause of activities. The Supreme Court in DICKSON V. SYLVA (2017) 8 NWLR (PT 1567) 167, has held that such certificate can be written or oral, if written, it is still subject to the powers of court to demand for an oral evidence. Also, the Supreme Court held in our, per Onnoghen, JSC as he then was, that where there is no certificate of compliance, a document produced by computer will not be admissible.

Generally, Computer is defined in section 258 of the Evidence Act to include any device for storing and processing information. Hence, Computer and device are used interchangeably, here. Note that, both primary and secondary documents, that are documents produced by computer must also fulfill the conditions of section 84 of the Evidence Act aside any other condition ordinarily expected for such.

Below are questions and reasons for such questions, needed to lay proper foundation for oral certification of document produced by computer in any court in Nigeria.

1.
Question:
Please tell this honourable court what document is referred to as “xxxxxxxxxxxx” [insert title of document] in your witness statement on oath?

Reason:
Pursuant to section 84(4)(a) of Evidence Act, a document produced by computer should be identified. Such document should be mentioned giving its title and unique name. Like, bank statement of Mr. Musa Ibeh between 2nd April to 23 May, 2019.

2.
Question:
How was the document produced?

Reason:
Pursuant to section 84(4)(a) of Evidence Act, there should be a description of the manner a document produced by a computer was produced. This may include explaining and mentioning; typing, scanning, saving, emailing, downloading and sending procedures/steps/stages. See, ROWAYE JUBRIL v. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA (2018) LPELR-43993(CA)


3. Question:
What device was used in producing the document?

Reason:
Pursuant to section 84(4)(b) of Evidence Act, there should is need for provision of particulars/details of the computer like Name, Type, Model, Year and unique title (if any). Note that by section 84(3) of the Evidence Act, where sets, groups or combination of computers were used whether concurrently or simultaneously, they all will be regarded as constituting a single computer. Hence, in such situation one need not mention all the computers employed in producing a document.

4. Question:
How regular was the device used during the period the document was produced?

Reason:
Pursuant to sections 84(2)(a) and 84(4)(c) of Evidence Act, there is need to establish that the computer was regularly used to store/process information by any person/persons for regular activities whether the activities are private or for profit making.

5. Question:
What was the device mainly and regularly used for?

Reason:
Pursuant to sections 84(2)(b) and 84(4)(c) of Evidence Act, there is need to establish that the computer was regularly supplied information like the type on the document produced by computer sought to be tendered.

6. Question:
What was the condition of the device before the production of the document?

Reason:
Pursuant to sections 84(2)(c) and 84(4)(c) of Evidence Act, the device was operating properly during the concerned period and that even if it was out of operation or part of it was not operating properly, that such never affected the document produced by computer or its content.

7. Question:
Where was the information on document produced by computer gotten from?

Reason:
Pursuant to sections 84(2)(d) and 84(4)(c) of Evidence Act, there is need to establish that the information in the document produced by computer sought to be tendered was derived from the information supplied to the device in the ordinary and regular course of activities.

8. Question:
What is your relationship with the device?

Reason:
Pursuant to section 84(4)(c) of Evidence Act, there is need to establish that the person providing a certification for document produced by computer and the computer used for such production, is a person of responsible position with regards to the operation of the device or the management the relevant activities. Such a person must not be a computer expert; he may even be a manager of a department/company that owns the concerned device and as such familiar with the computer.


My authorities are sections 84 and 259 of the Evidence Act, 2011. Also the Supreme Court Judgments in the cases of DICKSON V. SYLVA (2017) 8 NWLR (PT 1567) 167 and KUBOR V. DICKSON (2012) LPELR-9817(SC).

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NOTE: Sharing or modifying or publishing this publication without giving credit to Onyekachi Umah, Esq. and “LearnNigerianLaws.com” is a criminal breach of copyright and will be prosecuted. Please share this publication till it gets to those that need it most. Save a Nigerian today!

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*WHAT IS THE ALLOWED PRESUMABLE ORDER OF DEATH OF PERSONS IN NIGERIA*. DAILY LAW TIPS (Tip 309) By Onyekachi Umah, Esq., LLM. ACIArb(UK).


No one knows when he/she will die but we all must die some day! Well, for the sake of sharing property and determining ownership of property, where two (2) or more persons died in circumstances that have made it impossible to determine who died before the other, they would be presumed to have died according to their order of seniority, with the eldest dying first. The first to come to life is presumed to be first to die.

My authorities are sections 164 (2) and 259 of the Evidence Act, 2011.

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Feel free to reach the author, ask questions or make inquiries on this topic or any other via This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or +2348037665878.

NOTE: Sharing or modifying or publishing this publication without giving credit to Onyekachi Umah, Esq. and “LearnNigerianLaws.com” is a criminal breach of copyright and will be prosecuted. Please share this publication till it gets to those that need it most. Save a Nigerian today!

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*CAN THE EVIDENCE ACT APPLY TO ARBITRATION OR CUSTOMARY COURT OF APPEAL. * DAILY LAW TIPS (Tip 308) By Onyekachi Umah, Esq., LLM. ACIArb(UK).

The Evidence Act regulates the use of evidence in all proceedings in courts in Nigeria. Note that the evidence Act cannot apply to proceedings under arbitration or court martial or any Customary Court of Appeal, Sharia Court of Appeal, Area Court, or Customary Court in any part of Nigeria. Although, the evidence Act can apply to a Customary Court of Appeal, Sharia Court of Appeal, Area Court, or Customary Court in any part of Nigeria, where the Constitution of Nigeria or any order published on gazette. Note also that the Evidence Act apples to Area Court over criminal cases.

My authorities are sections 256 and 259 of the Evidence Act, 2011.

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Feel free to reach the author, ask questions or make inquiries on this topic or any other via This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or +2348037665878.

NOTE: Sharing or modifying or publishing this publication without giving credit to Onyekachi Umah, Esq. and “LearnNigerianLaws.com” is a criminal breach of copyright and will be prosecuted. Please share this publication till it gets to those that need it most. Save a Nigerian today!

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