No Marriage, No Fatherhood: Robbing Paternity.

No Marriage, No Fatherhood: Robbing Paternity. Daily Law Tips (Tip 811) by Onyekachi Umah, Esq., LL.M, ACIArb(UK)

Introduction:

No Marriage, No Fatherhood: robbing paternity. My friend (Emeka) was denied the care of his biological father because his biological father never paid the bride price of his mother. My learned colleague (Olayinka, Male, 38 years) recently connected with his biological father, after Olayinka was forcefully taken away from his father at the age of 7 years. Yes, Olayinka’s father was denied fatherhood for impregnating Olayinka’s mother without a bride price and subsequently failing to marry her.

A woman (Adanna) got married (bride price was paid to her parents) to a man (Ejike). In the course of their marriage, Ejike kept abusing Adanna until Adanna ran away for good. Living apart for 4 years, Adanna settled and co-habited with another man (Kodi) and gave birth to 3 children. By the award (order) of a traditional arbitration, Ejike was declared the father of the 3 biological children of Kodi, because the bride price paid by Ejike was never returned to Ejike before Adanna was impregnated by Kodi. Hence, the biological children of Kodi and Adanna were traditionally and culturally deemed to be the children of Ejike. Today, the 3 children are growing up in the house of Ejike.

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It is part of our tradition in Ameta, Mgbowo, Enugu state (Southern part of Nigeria), that fatherhood is subject to the payment of bride price. This is the tradition across many cultures in Africa. This means that a man can be denied fatherhood where he fathers a child without paying the bride price of the mother of the child, before and after the birth of the child. This work examines real live cases of how men are being systematically denied fatherhood and access to their children, and how children are denied the care of their fathers. It focuses on the interactions of human rights and factors that affect the victims. Remedies for victims are also highlighted.

Customary Marriage and Bride Price:

Marriage can be categorized into 3 board classes in Nigeria; English Marriage, Customary Marriage and Islamic Marriage. While English marriages are based on the written federal law on marriage (the Marriage Act), Customary Marriages are based on the unwritten customary laws of a given people. And, Islamic marriages are based on the Islamic teachings. This work focuses on customary marriages.

One major ingredient in customary marriages across Nigeria and Africa, is “bride price” and then followed by handing-over of bride. Bride price is a sum paid by the groom/groom’s family to the bride’s family for allowing the bride to be married to the groom. In some communities, bride prices are not merely symbolic rather actual prices that may run into millions of Naira. Such costly bride prices consider the academic qualification of bride, birth position of bride (first daughters are the

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costliest), beauty, the chances of bride giving birth, the status of bride’s family and the status of the groom’s family. “It is trite that the most common feature of customary marriages in Nigeria is the payment of bride price and handling over of the bride to the groom. These are the least and basic requirements of any Nigerian customary marriage. Thus, the proof of an existing customary marriage must contain the two.”  Per OGUNWUMIJU ,J.C.A (Pp. 44-45 paras. D)in the case of TONY CHIBUEZE OKOLONWAMU & ANOR v. MRS THERESA NKEM OKOLONWAMU & ORS (2014) LPELR-22631(CA)

The role of bride price in customary marriages cannot be overemphasized. The moment bride price is accepted from a groom and the bride is handed over to the groom, the bride is deemed to be fully married to the groom. It is the singular most important practice in customary marriage rites.  Also, a customary marriage can easily be terminated by the return of a bride price. A groom or his family can terminate a customary marriage by demanding the return of bride price. Also, a bride or her family can terminate a customary marriage be returning bride price to the groom’s family. How To Prove Traditional Marriage In Nigeria.

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Until bride price is returned a customary marriage is deemed to be valid and running, even if the couple are separated for decades and centuries, if possible. So, a couple is deemed to be customarily married until there is a return of bride price. There cannot be more than one bride price accepted for a bride by her family. So, where a bride wishes to re-marry, the existing bride price must be returned, before a new bride price can be validly accepted. However, a groom or groom’s family may waive their right to accept a returned bride price, but that does not vitiate the return of bride price. Bride price plays the most important role in customary marriages.

Bride Price and Fatherhood:

As shown above, bride price is the foundation of customary marriages. The validity of a customary marriage lies on the existence of a bride price and the termination of a customary marriage also relies on the return of a bride price. Until a bride price is returned to the groom or his family, a bride cannot marry another person. Until a bride price is returned a bride is deemed to the bride of the groom that paid the bride price.

Unless there is a return of bride price, a bride that marries another person apart from the groom that paid her bride price, is deemed to still be customarily married to only the groom that paid bride price. Furthermore, the children born to the groom that paid no bride price are deemed to children of the groom that paid a bride price.

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Bride price is the key for determination of fatherhood in customary marriages. It is the reason for the denial of fatherhood of Kodi. It is the basis for the assignment of the biological children of Kodi to Ejike, even though, Kodi is the undisputed biological father of the children. The payment of bride price commits a bride to the groom and until there is a return of a bride price, the bride and whoever is birthed by the bride is deemed to be that of the groom.

This customary logic is the basis for the customary practice; where on the death of a groom, the groom’s bride is allowed to be impregnated by another person and the child of the pregnancy is deemed to be the child of the dead groom and not that of man that impregnated the bride of the late groom. Even when the biological father of such a child is known, the biological father is never acknowledged forever, and the child is deemed to have been fathered by the late groom. For the above conduct to be perfected, the bride is retained as the bride of the late groom and as such bride price is never returned.

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Where a lady is impregnated without being married, the child is deemed to be the child of the father of the lady. As such, the lady’s family may deny the biological father of the child access to the child and other forms of fatherhood. Furthermore, by a later payment of a bride price by another man, the new man customarily marries the lady and may also be customarily deemed to have adopted the child of that other man. This is the case of Emeka, who grew up under his step-father as his biological father, since the step-father paid the mother’s bride price of his mother and customarily adopted Emeka. Emeka bears the surname of his step-father and Emeka was hide from the truth of his birth for decades. Hence, Emeka’s biological father was to be erased from Emeka’s life for failing to pay the bride price of Emeka’s mother.

The Constitution of Nigeria, the Other Laws and Fatherhood:

The greatest of all laws in Nigeria is the Constitution of Nigeria. It is greater than all traditions, native laws and customs in all parts of Nigeria. As such any tradition, culture, native law or custom that contradicts the Constitution of Nigeria is deemed to be invalid. Also, the Constitution of Nigeria contains the fundamental human rights of all persons in Nigeria, and as such all traditions, cultures, native laws or customs must protect the fundamental human rights.

When marriage (bride price) is made a condition for fatherhood, instead of biological links, then the rights of biological fathers and their children are obviously been violated under the Constitution of Nigeria and other federal/state laws. When a man contributes his spermatozoa for the birth of his child, and customarily requirement for a bride price is used a parameter to deny the man the fruits of his labour, then the rights of the man have been greatly violated and such a man has enormous legal remedies.

Also, every child deserves and has the rights to the care and protection of his/her father. Where a child is denied such care, the child is not without legal remedies. Issues of children and their rights are not issues for customary law, rather they are matters covered by federal and state laws; the Child’s Right Act and the Child’s Right Laws of states in Nigeria. 11 States That Do Not Protect Children In Nigeria.

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The denial of fatherhood would naturally come with torture (emotional, psychological and social torture) for the father and his children. This clearly violates the right to dignity of human person (a fundamental human right) under the Constitution of Nigeria and under the Child’s Right Act. Hence, victims of robbed fatherhood may seek redress in a court of law (a State High Court) for the violation of their fundamental human rights (dignity of human person).

A peep at the Child’s Right Act and similar laws across States in Nigeria, reveal packs of rights designed to protect children. The laws give a lot of duties to the parents of children, thereby showing that the law expects parents to play active roles in the lives of their children. Such roles cannot be played where fathers are robbed of their roles by mere customs and traditions.

By the Child’s Right Act/Laws, all decisions that may affect a child must be made with the best interest of the child in mind. By section 14 of the Child’s Right Act, a child has a right to parental care and protection of his parents and no child is to be separated from his parents, excepts for educational and welfare purposes or in enforcement of an order of court. Clearly there is no mention of native law and customs under section 14, hence, no customs or tradition is good enough to deny a child his father.

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Furthermore, section 27 of the Child’s Right Act emphasis that “No person shall remove or take a child out of the custody or protection of his father or mother, guardian or such other person having lawful care or charge of the child against the will of the father, mother, guardian or other person”. This means that, notwithstanding the culture, custom and native laws of a person, there is no ground for any child to be taken away from the biological father of the child without the permission of the father of the child. Custody of Children of Traditional Marriages and the “Chichidodo

As such, violating section 27 of the Child’s Right Act is a crime. It is a crime punishable with ten (10) years imprisonment where the child is taken away from the state of the parents; fifteen (15) years imprisonment where the child is taken out of Nigeria with intention to return the child to Nigeria; twenty (20) years imprisonment where the child is taken out of Nigeria with no intention to return the child to Nigeria; and seven (7) years in any other case. Victims are encouraged to seek legal remedies in courts of law across Nigeria.

Conclusion:

Nigerians are bound by Federal Laws, State Laws, Local Government Bye-Laws and their respective native laws and customs. However, native laws and customs are subservient to the written laws and the Constitution of Nigeria. So that, any native law and custom that attempts to contradict the Constitution of Nigeria and laws in Nigeria is invalid.

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Native/customary marriages are recognized by the Nigerian law and as such are valid and lawful marriages. However, where practices and rites emanating from customary marriages are inconsistent with natural justice, equity and good conscience as well as the Constitution of Nigeria, such practices and rites are invalid and incompetent. This includes customs that disinherit women, promote same sex, rob men of their fatherhood, deny children of the care of their fathers or contradict any law in Nigeria.

Children are one of the fruits of Marriage, Marriage is a pre-requite for setting up a family and family is key to the society. However, marriage is not the only route to having children. There can be good children without marriages and this reality must be accepted by all. Fathers should not be robbed of their fatherhood because they fail to marry the mothers of their children and children should by denied of their fathers, because their fathers fail to marry their mothers. Marriage should not affect paternity, it does not take a husband to be a father.

My authorities, are:

  1. Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 33 to 45, 318 and 319 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999.
  2. The judgment of the Court of Appeal in (the role of bride price in customary marriages) in the case of TONY CHIBUEZE OKOLONWAMU & ANOR v. MRS THERESA NKEM OKOLONWAMU & ORS (2014) LPELR-22631(CA)
  3. Onyekachi Umah, “Custody of Children of Traditional Marriages and the “Chichidodo” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 18 February 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/custody-of-children-of-traditional-marriages-and-the-chichidodo/> accessed 11 March 2021.
  4. Onyekachi Umah, “How To Be Legally Married” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 6 March 2016) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/how-to-be-legally-married/> accessed 11 March 2021
  5. Onyekachi Umah, “English Marriages Outside Marriage Registries and Churches Are Valid” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 28 September 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/english-marriages-outside-marriage-registries-and-churches-are-valid/> accessed 11 March 2021.
  6. Onyekachi Umah, “When Can Churches Dissolve Marriages?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 25 August 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/when-can-churches-dissolve-marriages/> accessed 11 March 2021
  7. Onyekachi Umah, “3 Steps to a Valid English/Court Marriage” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 21 August 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/3-steps-to-a-valid-english-court-marriage/> accessed 11 March 2021
  8. Onyekachi Umah, “Minimum Number of Guests for Marriages in Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 14 August 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/minimum-number-of-guests-for-marriages/> accessed 11 March 2021
  9. Onyekachi Umah, “Forget Hollywood & Nollywood: In Nigeria, Marriages Cannot End By Signing Of Divorce Papers.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 23 July 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/forget-hollywood-nollywood-in-nigeria-marriages-cannot-end-by-signing-of-divorce-papers-daily-law-tips-tip-616-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-ll-m-aciarbuk/> accessed 17 February 2021.
  10. Onyekachi Umah, “How To Prove Traditional Marriage In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 20 May 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/how-to-prove-traditional-marriage-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-573-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 17 February 2021
  11. Onyekachi Umah, “Customary Marriages In Nigeria Are To Be Registered In Court.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 13 September 2018)  <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/daily-law-tips-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-tip-183-customary-marriages-in-nigeria-are-to-be-registered-in-court/> accessed 17 February 2021.
  12. Onyekachi Umah, “Custody of a Child In Customary Marriage: How and To Whom?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 29 September 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/custody-of-a-child-in-customary-marriage-how-and-to-whom/> accessed 17 February 2021
  13. Onyekachi Umah, “Factors That Court Consider Before Granting Custody Of Child To Any Person.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 3 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/factors-that-court-consider-before-granting-custody-of-child-to-any-person-daily-law-tips-tip-517-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 17 February 2021
  14. Onyekachi Umah, “Forced Marriage Is An Offence In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 21 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/forced-marriage-is-an-offence-in-nigeria/> accessed 11 March 2021
  15. Onyekachi Umah, “Child Marriage/Abuse Is A Crime (Rape): An Exposé On Laws Prohibiting Child Marriage” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 22 June 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/child-marriage-abuse-is-a-crime-rape-an-expose-on-laws-prohibiting-child-marriage-daily-law-tips-tip-593-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 11 March 2021
  16. Onyekachi Umah, “Customs That Allow Marriages Between Women Or With Dead Persons; The Position Of The Law” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 13 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/position-of-law-on-the-customs-that-allow-marriage-between-women-or-with-dead-persons-daily-law-tips-tip-525-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 11 March 2021
  17. Onyekachi Umah, “Approved Time For Valid Weddings (Marriages) In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 26 June 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/approved-time-for-valid-weddings-marriages-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-359-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 11 March 2021
  18. Onyekachi Umah, “Valid English Marriage Cannot Start From Church/Mosque” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 9 May 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/valid-english-marriage-cannot-start-from-church-mosque-daily-law-tips-tip-327-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 11 March 2021
  19. Onyekachi Umah, “Start Point Of Valid English Marriage In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 6 July 2018) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/daily-law-tips-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-tip-136-start-point-of-valid-english-marriage-in-nigeria/> accessed 11 March 20201
  20. Onyekachi Umah, “Legality of Varying Cost of English Marriages Across Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 4 July 2018) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/daily-law-tips-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-tip-134-legality-of-varying-cost-of-english-marriages-across-nigeria/> accessed 11 March 2021
  21. Onyekachi Umah, “Use of Fake Name by a Spouse Invalidates Marriage in Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 29 June 2018) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/daily-law-tips-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-tip-131-use-of-fake-name-by-a-spouse-invalidates-marriage-in-nigeria/> accessed 11 March 2021
  22. Onyekachi Umah, “Validity of Marriages Conducted in Ikeja, Abuja and other Federal Marriage Registries in Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 21 May 2018) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/daily-law-tips-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-tip-105-validity-of-marriages-conducted-in-ikeja-abuja-and-other-federal-marriage-registries-in-nigeria/> accessed 11 March 2021
  23. Onyekachi Umah, “Can A Wife Without A Male Child Inherit Her Husband’s Property?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com,  28 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/can-a-wife-without-a-male-child-inherit-her-husbands-property/> accessed 11 March 2021
  24. Onyekachi Umah, “Punishment For Clergies That Wed People Without License” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 11 September 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/punishment-for-clergies-that-wed-people-couples-without-license/> accessed 11 March 2021
  25. Onyekachi Umah, “Drug Test of Ladies before Wedding is Unlawful” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 28 August 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/drug-test-of-ladies-before-wedding-is-unlawful/> accessed 11 March 2021
  26. Onyekachi Umah, “A Clergy Cannot Wed People In A Different Church From His” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, July 27 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/a-clergy-cannot-wed-people-in-a-different-church-from-his-daily-law-tips-tip-618-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-ll-m-aciarbuk/> accessed 11 March 2021.
  27. Onyekachi Umah, “Married Women And The Need For Husband’s Consent For International Passport” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 16 April 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/married-women-and-the-need-for-husbands-consent-for-international-passport-daily-law-tips-tip-549-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 11 March 2021
  28. Onyekachi Umah, “Factors that Court Consider Before Granting Custody of Child to Any Person” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 3 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/factors-that-court-consider-before-granting-custody-of-child-to-any-person-daily-law-tips-tip-517-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 11 March 2021
  29. Onyekachi Umah, “The Right Court For Divorce In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 24 April 2018) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/daily-law-tips-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-tip-87-the-right-court-for-divorce-in-nigeria/> accessed 11 March 2021
  30. Onyekachi Umah, “Refusal to Make Love Is a Ground for Divorce” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 16 April 2018) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/refusal-to-make-love-is-a-ground-for-divorce/> accessed 11 March 2021
  31. Onyekachi Umah, “Abolished Anti-Women Custom of Onitsha People of Anambra State, Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws, 10 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/abolished-anti-women-custom-of-onitsha-people-of-anambra-state-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-522-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/ > accessed 2 October 2020
  32. Onyekachi Umah, “Abolished Anti-Women Custom of Yoruba People of Nigeria”, (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 11 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/abolished-anti-women-custom-of-yoruba-people-of-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-523-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/ > accessed 2 October 2020.
  33. Onyekachi Umah, “How To Stop Your Husband/Wife From Marrying Another Person” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 18 July 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/how-to-stop-your-husband-wife-from-marrying-another-person-daily-law-tips-tip-375-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 11 March 2021
  34. Onyekachi Umah, “Leaving Your Spouse To Marry Another Person is a Criminal Offence” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 3 May 2018) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/daily-law-tips-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-tip-93-leaving-your-spouse-to-marry-another-person-is-a-criminal-offence/> accessed 11 March 2021
  35. Onyekachi Umah, “Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting/Elongation, Breasts Ironing And Forced Marriage Are Now Criminal Offences In Nigeria” (Daily Law Tips [443]) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/female-genital-mutilation-cutting-elongation-breasts-ironing-and-forced-marriage-are-now-criminal-offences-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-443-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/ > accessed 12 October 2020.
  36. Onyekachi Umah, “Abandonment Of Wife/Husband, Children Or Dependants Is A Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 3 December 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/abandonment-of-wife-husband-children-or-dependants-is-a-crime-daily-law-tips-tip-470-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  37. Onyekachi Umah, “Emotional, Verbal And Psychological Abuse Is Now Criminal Offences” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 3 September 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/emotional-verbal-and-psychological-abuse-is-now-criminal-offence/> accessed 28 April 2021
  38. Onyekachi Umah, “Forcing Wife to Stop Work is Now A Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 21 April 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/forcing-wife-to-stop-work-is-now-a-crime/https://learnnigerianlaws.com/forcing-wife-to-stop-work-is-now-a-crime/> accessed 26 April 2021
  39. Onyekachi Umah, “It Is Now An Offence To Force Wife/Husband To Stop Working” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 28 May 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/it-is-now-an-offence-to-force-wife-husband-to-stop-working-daily-law-tips-tip-340-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  40. Onyekachi Umah, “Seizing or Destroying the Property of a Spouse is a Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 2 March 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/seizing-or-destroying-the-property-of-a-spouse-is-a-crime/> accessed 20 April 2021
  41. Onyekachi Umah, “Can a Married Woman Inherit Her Parents’ Property?”, (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 27 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/can-a-married-woman-inherit-her-parents-property-daily-law-tips-tip-535-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/ > accessed 20 April 2021
  42. Onyekachi Umah, “Abolished Anti-Women Custom of Onitsha People of Anambra State, Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws, 10 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/abolished-anti-women-custom-of-onitsha-people-of-anambra-state-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-522-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/ > accessed 20 April 2021
  43. Onyekachi Umah, “Citizen By Marriage Is Discriminatory and Against Nigerian Women”, (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 14 September 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/citizen-by-marriage-is-discriminatory-and-against-nigerian-women/ > accessed 20 April 2021
  44. Onyekachi Umah, “Abolished Anti-Women Custom of Yoruba People of Nigeria”, (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 11 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/abolished-anti-women-custom-of-yoruba-people-of-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-523-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/ > accessed 20 April 2021
  45. Onyekachi Umah, “Can a Married Woman Inherit Her Parents Property?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 27 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/can-a-married-woman-inherit-her-parents-property-daily-law-tips-tip-535-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/ > accessed 20 April 2021
  46. Onyekachi Umah, “It Is An Offence To Chase Out Wife/Husband From A Home Or Even Attempt To Do So” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 17 May 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/it-is-an-offence-to-chase-out-wife-husband-from-a-home-or-even-attempt-to-do-so-daily-law-tips-tip-333-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  47. Onyekachi Umah, “Can Court Dismiss Divorce Case Because Husband Impregnated Wife?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 12 March 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/can-court-dismiss-divorce-case-because-husband-impregnated-wife/> accessed 14 May 2021
  48. Onyekachi Umah, “Every Child has Right to a Rest and Play” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 27 May 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/every-child-has-a-right-to-rest-and-play/> accessed 30 May 2021
  49. Onyekachi Umah, “Child Marriage/Abuse Is A Crime (Rape): An Exposé On Laws Prohibiting Child Marriage” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 22 June 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/child-marriage-abuse-is-a-crime-rape-an-expose-on-laws-prohibiting-child-marriage-daily-law-tips-tip-593-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/ > accessed 20 April 2021
  50. Onyekachi Umah, “Forced Marriage Is An Offence In Nigeria.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 21 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/forced-marriage-is-an-offence-in-nigeria/> accessed 20 April 2021
  51. Onyekachi Umah, “An Alternative to Courts for Human Rights Cases” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 14 May 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/an-alternative-to-courts-for-human-rights-cases/> accessed 23 May 2021. 
  52. Onyekachi Umah, “Stripping Suspects Naked is Torture and it’s a Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 16 February 2021) <https:// 1 National Human Rights Commission, ‘State Offices” (NHRC) <http://www.nhrc.gov.ng/index.php/regional-offices#zamfara > accessed 27 October 2020
  53. Onyekachi Umah, “Details of State Offices of National Human Rights Commission” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 27 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/details-of-state-offices-of-national-human-rights-commission/> accessed 14 May 2021
  54. Onyekachi Umah, “Who Takes Over the Property After Divorce?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 18 May 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/who-takes-over-the-property-after-divorce/> accessed 21 June 2021
  55. Onyeachi Umh, “Who Takes Over the Properties of Unmarried Lovers After a Breakup?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 3 June 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/who-takes-over-the-properties-of-unmarried-lovers-after-a-breakup/> accessed 21 June 2021
  56. Onyekachi Umah, “11 States That Do Not Protect Children In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 31 May 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/11-states-that-do-not-protect-children-in-nigeria/> accessed 21 June 2021.
  57. Photo Credit: istockphoto.com

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