Why Nigerian Government Cannot Prosecute Twitter Users.

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Why Nigerian Government Cannot Prosecute Twitter Users. Daily Law Tips (Tip 809) by Onyekachi Umah, Esq., LL.M, ACIArb(UK)

Introduction:

On 5 June 2021, Twitter was banned in Nigeria for deleting the public messages of the President of Nigeria. According to Twitter Inc., the messages where offensive, while according to Nigeria, the ban was “for activities that are capable of undermining Nigeria’s corporate existence.” Sequel to the ban, many Nigerians have continued the use Twitter through Virtual Private Networks (VPN), even as world leaders and Nigerians condemn the ban as an undemocratic violation of human rights.

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Following the continued use of the banned Twitter by Nigerians, the Attorney General of the Federation (Mr.Abubakar Malami) threatened to prosecute Twitter Users in Nigeria. As reported in the Guardian Newspaper, Umar Jibrilu Gwandu (spokesman to Malami), revealed that; “Malami directed the Director of Public Prosecution of the Federation (DPPF) at the Office of the Attorney General of the Federation and Minister of Justice, to swing into action and commence in earnest the process of prosecution of violators of the Federal Government De-activation of operations of Twitter in Nigeria,”. Mr. Malami is a Senior Advocate of Nigeria and Nigeria’s Chief Legal Officer.

This work analyzes the threat of the Federal Government of Nigeria to prosecute Twitter Users in Nigeria. It questions the powers of government to criminalize actions and inactions, viz-a-viz the fundamental human rights in Nigeria, especially the right not to be prosecuted under a non-existing law. It ultimately reveals the illegalities in prosecuting Twitter Users in courts in Nigeria.In this work, the words/terms; “Lawful Violation” and “Lawfully Violate” are used contextually to refer to rights that can be lawfully suspended, derogated and challenged by government, not minding their grammatical propriety.

Nigerian Human Rights:

There are fundamental human rights in Nigeria and there are contained in the Constitution of Nigeria. The rights are for persons in Nigeria, including businesses, enterprises and corporate bodies. Learn more on this via; “Twitter vs. Nigeria; The Human Rights of Twitter Inc. and the Twitter Users”.Fundamental human rights are basic, elementary, mandatory, compulsory and unshakable entitlements of persons. Fundamental human rights are never purchased rather they are inborn and inbuilt on every person (human being or corporate being). List of Fundamental Human Rights In Nigeria.

“Sabi Law On The Beat Fm” Now Airing.

The fundamental human rights contained in the constitution of Nigeria are: Right to Life, Right to Dignity of Human Person, Right to Personal Liberty, Right to Fair Hearing, Right to Private and Family Life, Right to Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion, Right to Freedom of Expression and the Press, Rights to Peaceful Assembly and Association, Right to Freedom of Movement, Right to Freedom from Discrimination and then, Right to Acquire and Own Immovable Property anywhere in Nigeria.

Fundamental human rights are sacred, however, some of them can be suspended, limited, derogated and “lawfully violated” by government in Nigeria, without any liabilities. You may read more on this issue, via “Government Can Lawfully Violate Human Rights: The Case of Twitter vs. Nigeria”. It is also important to note that a few of the fundamental human rights are absolute, untouchable and unchallengeable by any person or government. The absolute human rights are only about three; learn more on this via; “Human Rights That Are Truly Absolute And Untouchable In Nigeria”.

Human Rights of Offenders & Suspected Offenders:

In Nigeria nothing is a crime, unless there is a written federal or state law that declares the thing (action or inaction) to be a crime. A common example is adultery. There is no general law in Nigeria that makes adultery a crime, however, in some states in the Northern part of Nigeria, adultery is a crime. You may read more on this issue via; “Adultery Is Not An Offence In All States In Nigeria”.

Laws are made by the federal or state Legislature and not by the Executive or Judiciary. The Executive is to only implement laws, while the Judiciary interprets law. In some cases, to avoid delay (administrative convenience), the Legislature may delegate some powers in writing to the Executive, for the Executive to make some regulations (as subsidiary legislations to the main/parent laws made by the Legislature). This allows the President of Nigeria to rely on a federal law to make Regulations.

“Sabi Law On The Beat Fm” Now Airing.

Every offender or suspected offender has fundamental human rights, like every other person in Nigeria. Even a man on a death row has human rights and must be respected. A suspect that is arrested for using Twitter has fundamental human rights, including the right to fair hearing. Under the right to fair hearing is the right not-to-be prosecuted or found guilty of a non-existing offence.

Human Rights of Suspected Twitter Users:

Millions of Nigerians have been using Twitter in Nigeria until the Federal Government of Nigeria banned Twitter on 5 June 2021. Following the ban on Twitter, and the continued use of Twitter by Nigerians, the Federal Government of Nigeria threatened to prosecute all Twitter Users. So, the focus here is on the human rights of any suspected Twitter User in Nigeria and this will ultimately reveal whether Twitter Users can be prosecuted in courts in Nigeria.

To prosecute a suspect in Nigeria, the prosecution must prove that the suspect has violated a written criminal law. At the time that Twitter was banned in Nigeria till date, there is no state or federal law that criminalizes the use of Twitter or any social media platform in any part of Nigeria. Also, the President of Nigeria has not signed any Regulation criminalizing the use of Twitter. As such, there is no legal basis for any person in Nigeria to be investigated, arrested or charged to any court for using Twitter.

“Sabi Law On The Beat Fm” Now Airing.

By the working of the few absolute fundamental human rights, specifically; “Right not to be held guilty of a non-existing offence”, no person in Nigeria can be prosecuted for using the banned twitter or any social media platform. There is no written law that prohibits Twitter in any part of Nigeria, so there is no legal authority for the arrest and prosecution of persons using Twitter in Nigeria. Whether the ban on Twitter is lawful or not, there is no single law that prohibits persons in Nigeria from using Twitter or any other social media platform. So, there is no law for criminal charges on use of Twitter to be prepared and issued against any person in Nigeria. Criminal laws are not made by mere executive television messages of the President of Nigeria or the Attorney General of Nigeria.

Although the Federal Government of Nigeria can lawfully suspend Twitter through a federal law (if the law is democratic and reasonably justifiable in the interest of defence, public good, public health or public safety), presently, there is no such law yet. Also, there is no law criminalizing the use of Twitter in any part of Nigeria.

Conclusion: 

Although the President of Nigeria is the Chief Executive Officer of Nigeria, he is bound by the Constitution of Nigeria. The President of Nigeria and his appointees (including the Attorney General of Federation) are by the Constitution of Nigeria prohibited from investigating, arresting and prosecuting any person in Nigeria for an offence that does not exists. The President and his appointees have not convinced the Legislature to enact a law criminalizing the use of Twitter in Nigeria. Until there is such law, no person can be lawfully arrested and prosecuted for using Twitter in Nigeria.

Call for Legal Awareness Articles in English or Pidgin Languages.

In the present state of lawlessness and executive impunity in Nigeria, it is not impossible for Twitter Users to be arrested and charged to court for no offence. It will also not be strange to find lawyers and prosecutors, arguing for the guilt of Twitter Users under no known law in a court of law. The processes of such shameful arguments may fetch suspected Twitter Users some weeks, if not months, in the overcrowded Correctional Facilities in Nigeria. Such suspected Twitter Users can stay for years on the notorious Awaiting-Trial Lists of Correctional Centers, until death or political mercy comes. So, although, it is legally wrong for any person to be prosecuted for using Twitter since there is no law against the use of Twitter, it is not impossible to find unscrupulous prosecutors that may seek to prosecute Twitter Users for a non-existing offence.

My authorities, are:

  1. Sections 14, 20, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 305, 318 and 319 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999.
  2. Article 19 of the Universal Declaration for Human Rights.
  3. Sections 6, 7, 8 and 22 of the National Human Rights Commission (Amendment) Act 2010 and Sections 1, 2, 5 and 6, the National Human Rights Commission (Amendment) Act 1995.
  4. Sections 387 and 388 of the Penal Code Act, 1960
  5. The judgment of the Supreme Court of Nigeria (on meaning and nature of fundamental human rights) in the case of RANSOME-KUTI & ORS v. AG FEDERATION & ORS (1985) LPELR-2940(SC)
  6. The judgment of the Supreme Court of Nigeria (on meaning and nature of fundamental human rights) in the case of AGBAI & ORS v. OKOGBUE (1991) LPELR-225(SC).
  7. The judgment of the Supreme Court of Nigeria (on when and why fundamental human rights can be restricted/suspended) in the case of DOKUBO-ASARI v. FRN (2007) LPELR-958(SC).
  8. The Supreme Court judgment on “Meaning of Regulation” in the case of AG LAGOS STATE v. EKO HOTELS LTD & ANOR (2006) LPELR-3161(SC)
  9. The Court of Appeal judgment on “Meaning of Executive Order/Regulation” in the case of ELEPHANT GROUP PLC v. NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISER & ANOR (2018) LPELR-45528(CA)
  10. The Supreme Court judgment on “Policy Documents/Guidance” in the case of COMPTROLLER GENERAL OF CUSTOMS & ORS v. COMPTROLLER ABDULLAHI B. GUSAU (2017) LPELR-42081(SC).
  11. The Supreme Court judgment on “Policy Documents/Guidance” in the case of UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC & ANOR. v. IFEOLUWA NIG. ENTERPRISES LTD (2007) 7 NWLR (Pt.1032) 71 at 84.
  12. Nimi Princewill and Stephanie Busari, “Nigeria bans Twitter after company deletes President Buhari’s tweet” (CNN, 5 June 2021) <https://edition.cnn.com/2021/06/04/africa/nigeria-suspends-twitter-operations-intl/index.html> accessed 7 June 2021
  13. Adeyemi Adepetun, Sunday Aikulola, Silver Nwokoro, Nkechi Onyedika-Ugoeze and Nnamdi Akpa, “Adeboye, Kumuyi defend Twitter use as envoys again reject ban” (The Guardian, 8 June 2021) <https://guardian.ng/news/adeboye-kumuyi-defend-twitter-use-as-envoys-again-reject-ban/> accessed 8 June 2021
  14. BBC, “Nigeria’s Twitter ban: Government orders prosecution of violators” (BBC, 6 June 2021) <https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-57368535> accessed 8 June 2021
  15. Alfred Olufemi, “After Twitter, Facebook deletes Buhari’s controversial ‘civil war’ post” (PremiumTimes, 4 June 2021) <https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/465653-just-in-after-twitter-facebook-deletes-buharis-controversial-civil-war-post.html> accessed 8 June 2021
  16. Anietie Ewang, “Nigeria’s Twitter Ban Follows Pattern of Repression” (Human Rights Watch, 7 June 2021) <https://www.hrw.org/news/2021/06/07/nigerias-twitter-ban-follows-pattern-repression> accessed 8 June 2021
  17. Onyekachi Umah, “Twitter vs. Nigeria; The Human Rights of Twitter Inc. and the Twitter Users” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 8 June 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/twitter-vs-nigeria-the-human-rights-of-twitter-inc-and-the-twitter-users/> accessed 9 June 2021.
  18. Onyekachi Umah, “Scarcity of Passport and the Government’s Violation of the Right of Movement” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 1 June 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/scarcity-of-passport-and-the-governments-violation-of-the-right-of-movement/> accessed 8 June 2021
  19. Onyekachi Umah, “An Alternative to Courts for Human Rights Cases” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 14 May 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/an-alternative-to-courts-for-human-rights-cases/> accessed 23 May 2021.
  20. Onyekachi Umah, “Details of State Offices of National Human Rights Commission” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 27 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/details-of-state-offices-of-national-human-rights-commission/> accessed 14 May 2021
  21. Onyekachi Umah, “Human Rights That Can Never Be Restricted Even In War, Pandemic or State of Emergency” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 2 April 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/human-rights-that-can-never-be-restricted-even-in-war-pandemic-or-state-of-emergency-daily-law-tips-tip-539-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 23 May 2021
  22. Onyekachi Umah, “Does The President/Governors Have Powers To Lockdown Any Part Of Nigeria Or Restrict Human Rights?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 1 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/does-the-president-governors-have-powers-to-lockdown-any-part-of-nigeria-or-restrict-human-rights-daily-law-tips-tip-537-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 14 May 2021
  23. Onyekachi Umah, “How to Report and Discipline Police Officers” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 25 May 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/how-to-report-and-discipline-police-officers/> accessed 27 May 2021
  24. Onyekachi Umah, “Warrant of Arrest: Contents and Issuance” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 19 April 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/warrant-of-arrest-contents-and-issuance/> accessed 25 May 2021.
  25. Onyekachi Umah, “12 Situations Where Police Officers Can Arrest Without Warrant” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 18 June 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/12-situations-where-police-officers-can-arrest-without-warrant/> accessed 25 May 2021.
  26. Onyekachi Umah, “Stripping Suspects Naked is Torture and it’s a Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 16 February 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/stripping-suspects-naked-is-torture-and-its-a-crime/> accessed 23 May 2021
  27. Onyekachi Umah, “Can Police Punish Unlawful Protesters?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 15 February 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/can-police-punish-unlawful-protesters/> accessed 23 May 2021
  28. Onyekachi Umah, “When Can A Protest Become A Riot?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 6 November 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/when-can-a-protest-become-a-riot/> 23 May 2021
  29. Onyekachi Umah, “#EndSarsNow: Punishment For Police (SARS) Torture” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 6 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/endsarsnow-punishment-for-police-sars-torture/> accessed 23 May 2021
  30. Onyekachi Umah, “#EndSarsNow: Nigeria Police Lacks Power To Punish” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 7 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/endsarsnow-nigeria-police-lacks-power-to-punish/> accessed 23 May 2021
  31. Onyekachi Umah, “#EndPoliceBrutality: How To Sue the Nigeria Police Force and Police Officers” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 14 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/endpolicebrutality-how-to-sue-the-nigeria-police-force-and-police-officers/> accessed 23 May 2021
  32. “Demand justice for Police Brutality in Nigeria” (Amnesty International) <https://www.amnesty.org/en/get-involved/take-action/nigeria-end-impunity-for-police-brutality-end-sars/> accessed 23 May 2021
  33. Onyekachi Umah, “Who Can Be Lawfully Killed In Nigeria?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 26 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/who-can-be-lawfully-killed-in-nigeria/> accessed 23 May 2021
  34. Femi Falana, “Police Permit Not Required For Rallies in Nigeria” (Premium Times, 23 January 2014) <https://www.premiumtimesng.com/opinion/153860-police-permit-required-rallies-nigeria.html> accessed 23 May 2021
  35. Onyekachi Umah, “Can A Person With A Nigerian Flag Be Shot Or Killed?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com,23 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/can-a-person-with-a-nigerian-flag-be-shot-or-killed/> accessed 23 May 2021
  36. Onyekachi Umah, “#EndPoliceBrutality: When & How Can Government Prohibit Protest In Nigeria?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 19 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/when-and-how-can-government-prohibit-protest-in-nigeria/> accessed 23 May 2021
  37. Onyekachi Umah, “#EndPoliceBrutality: The Right To Protest Is A Human Right.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 15 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/endpolicebrutality-the-right-to-protest-is-a-human-right/> accessed 23 May 2021
  38. Onyekachi Umah, “#EndPoliceBrutality: Do You Need A Police Permit To Protest?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 16 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/endpolicebrutality-do-you-need-a-police-permit-to-protest/> accessed 23 May 2021
  39. Onyekachi Umah, “Does The President/Governors Have Powers To Lockdown Any Part Of Nigeria Or Restrict Human Rights?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 31 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/does-the-president-governors-have-powers-to-lockdown-any-part-of-nigeria-or-restrict-human-rights-daily-law-tips-tip-537-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 23 May 2021
  40. Onyekachi Umah, “Duty of Government to Pay Compensation for Damages Caused By Riot.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 4 November 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/duty-of-government-to-pay-compensation-for-damages-caused-by-riot/> accessed 23 May 2021
  41. Onyekachi Umah, “Who Pays For Properties Damaged or Lost In A Riot In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 6 August 2018) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/daily-law-tips-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-tip-157-who-pays-for-properties-damaged-or-lost-in-a-riot-in-nigeria/> accessed 23 May 2021
  42. Onyekachi Umah, “List of Fundamental Human Rights In Nigeria.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 22 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/list-of-fundamental-human-rights-in-nigeria/> accessed 23 May 2021
  43. Chris Admin, “Onyekachi Umah Speaks To ChannelsTv On SARS & The New Police Act” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 9 November 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/onyekachi-umah-speaks-to-channelstv-on-sars-the-new-police-act/> accessed 23 May 2021
  44. Onyekachi Umah, “What Is The Punishment For Any Person Including Police Officers That Tortures Another Person” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 18 December 2018) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/daily-law-tips-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-tip-251-what-is-the-punishment-for-any-person-including-police-officers-that-tortures-another-person/> accessed 23 May 2021
  45. Onyekachi Umah, “Is Obeying “Orders From Above” a Defence for Torture in Nigeria” (LearnNIgerianLaws.com, 7 September 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/is-obeying-orders-from-above-a-defence-for-torture-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-409-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 23 May 2021
  46. Onyekachi Umah, “Being Present During Torture Without Participating In It, Is A Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 25 November 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/being-present-during-torture-without-participating-in-it-is-a-crime-daily-law-tips-tip-464-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 23 May 2021
  47. Onyekachi Umah, “New Punishment for Security Officers Involved in Torture in Nigeria.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 27 August 2017) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/new-punishment-for-security-officers-involved-in-torture-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-401-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 23 May 2021
  48. Onyekachi Umah, “Watching Torture but not Participating in it, is Torture.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 19 November 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/watching-torture-but-not-participating-in-it-is-torture-daily-law-tips-tip-460-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 23 May 2021
  49. Onyekachi Umah, “Any Security Agency’s Manual/Protocol that Allows Torture Even for National Security Cases is Unlawful and its Officers are Liable.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 11 September 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/any-security-agency-s-manual-protocol-that-allows-torture-even-for-national-security-cases-is-unlawful-and-its-officers-are-liable-daily-law-tips-tip-412-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 23 May 2021
  50. Onyekachi Umah, “Every Child has Right to a Rest and Play” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 27 May 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/every-child-has-a-right-to-rest-and-play/> accessed 30 May 2021
  51. Onyekachi Umah, “Child Marriage/Abuse Is A Crime (Rape): An Exposé On Laws Prohibiting Child Marriage” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 22 June 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/child-marriage-abuse-is-a-crime-rape-an-expose-on-laws-prohibiting-child-marriage-daily-law-tips-tip-593-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  52. Onyekachi Umah, “Forced Marriage Is An Offence In Nigeria.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 21 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/forced-marriage-is-an-offence-in-nigeria/> accessed 20 April 2021
  53. Onyekachi Umah, “Stripping Suspects Naked is Torture and it’s a Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 16 February 2021) <https:// 1 National Human Rights Commission, ‘State Offices” (NHRC) <http://www.nhrc.gov.ng/index.php/regional-offices#zamfara> accessed 27 October 2020
  54. Onyekachi Umah, “Details of State Offices of National Human Rights Commission” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 27 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/details-of-state-offices-of-national-human-rights-commission/> accessed 14 May 2021
  55. Onyekachi Umah, “Does The President/Governors Have Powers To Lockdown Any Part Of Nigeria Or Restrict Human Rights?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 1 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/does-the-president-governors-have-powers-to-lockdown-any-part-of-nigeria-or-restrict-human-rights-daily-law-tips-tip-537-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 14 May 2021
  56. Onyekachi Umah, “States & Areas Offices of Public Complaints Commission” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 20 November 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/states-areas-offices-of-public-complaints-commission/> accessed 14 May 2021
  57. Onyekachi Umah, “Complaints That The Public Complaints Commission Can Handle” (com, 30 October 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/complaints-that-the-public-complaints-commission-can-handle/> accessed 14 May 2021
  58. Stephen Ubimago, ‘Legal Aid Council: Facing Challenge Of Relevance Amid Poor Funding’ (Independent, 27 October 2020) <https://www.independent.ng/legal-aid-council-facing-challenge-of-relevance-amid-poor-funding/> accessed 14 May 2021
  59. Onyekachi Umah, “Abandonment Of Wife/Husband, Children Or Dependants Is A Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 3 December 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/abandonment-of-wife-husband-children-or-dependants-is-a-crime-daily-law-tips-tip-470-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  60. Onyekachi Umah, “How Lagos State Is Legislatively Ahead Of Other States” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 30 September 2020 <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/how-lagos-state-is-legislatively-ahead-of-other-states/> accessed 20 April  2021
  61. Onyekachi Umah, “The First Virtual Court Hearing Was In Borno State And Not In Lagos State.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 1 June 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/the-first-virtual-court-hearing-was-in-borno-state-and-not-in-lagos-state-daily-law-tips-tip-579-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  62. Onyekachi Umah, “Emotional, Verbal And Psychological Abuse Is Now Criminal Offences” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 3 September 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/emotional-verbal-and-psychological-abuse-is-now-criminal-offence/> accessed 28 April 2021
  63. Onyekachi Umah, “Forcing Wife to Stop Work is Now A Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 21 April 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/forcing-wife-to-stop-work-is-now-a-crime/https://learnnigerianlaws.com/forcing-wife-to-stop-work-is-now-a-crime/> accessed 26 April 2021
  64. Onyekachi Umah, “It Is Now An Offence To Force Wife/Husband To Stop Working” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 28 May 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/it-is-now-an-offence-to-force-wife-husband-to-stop-working-daily-law-tips-tip-340-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  65. Onyekachi Umah, “Seizing or Destroying the Property of a Spouse is a Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 2 March 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/seizing-or-destroying-the-property-of-a-spouse-is-a-crime/> accessed 20 April 2021
  66. Onyekachi Umah, “Hiding/Concealing Domestic Violence Is A Crime” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 11 December 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/hiding-concealing-domestic-violence-is-a-crime/> accessed 20 April 2021
  67. Onyekachi Umah, “Domestic Violence Is A Crime Not A Family Dispute” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 10 December 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/domestic-violence-is-a-crime-not-a-family-dispute/> accessed 20 April 2021
  68. Onyekachi Umah, “Why Lagos State Needs A VAPP/SGBV Law” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 26 January 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/why-lagos-state-needs-a-vapp-sgbv-law/> accessed 20 April 2021
  69. Onyekachi Umah, “Lagos State Has No VAPP/SGBV Law !” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 8 December 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/lagos-state-has-no-vapp-sgbv-law/> accessed 20 April 2021
  70. Onyekachi Umah, “An Access To Criminal Laws In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 4 December 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/an-access-to-criminal-laws-in-nigeria/> accessed 20 April 2021
  71. Onyekachi Umah, “8 New Things About Rape Laws In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 3 December 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/8-new-things-about-rape-laws-in-nigeria/> accessed 20 April 2021
  72. Onyekachi Umah, “ChannelsTv Interviews Onyekachi Umah on Rape and the Laws.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 20 November 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/channelstv-interviews-onyekachi-umah-on-rape-and-the-laws/> accessed 20 April 2021
  73. Onyekachi Umah, “Can A Woman Be Charged With Rape” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 24 June 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/can-a-woman-be-charged-with-rape-daily-law-tips-tip-595-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-ll-m-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  74. Onyekachi Umah, “Can A Husband Rape His Wife” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 19 June 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/can-a-husband-rape-his-wife-daily-law-tips-tip-592-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  75. Onyekachi Umah, “When Is Seduction Or Indecent Dressing A Justification For Rape In Nigeria?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 18 June 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/when-is-seduction-or-indecent-dressing-a-justification-for-rape-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-591-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  76. Onyekachi Umah, “New Punishment For Rape In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 23 June 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/new-punishment-for-rape-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-594-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  77. Onyekachi Umah, “Rape Cannot Be Settled Out Of Court (No Room For Pay-Off/Forgiveness/Withdrawal Of Complaints” (LearnNigerianLaws.com,26 June 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/rape-cannot-be-settled-out-of-court-no-room-for-pay-off-forgiveness-withdrawal-of-complaints-daily-law-tips-tip-596-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  78. Onyekachi Umah, “A Female Too, Can BE Guilty Of Rape” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 13 December 2018) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/daily-law-tips-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-tip-248-a-female-too-can-be-guilty-of-rape-in-nigeria/> accessed 20 April 2021
  79. Onyekachi Umah, “Ages At Which Sexual Intercourse With Consent Will Amount To Rape” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 20 February 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/ages-at-which-sexual-intercourse-with-consent-will-amount-to-rape-daily-law-tips-tip-509-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  80. Onyekachi Umah, “How To Prove Rape In Nigeria).” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 2 July 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/how-to-prove-rape-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-363-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  81. Onyekachi Umah, “Can a Married Woman Inherit Her Parents’ Property?”, (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 27 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/can-a-married-woman-inherit-her-parents-property-daily-law-tips-tip-535-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  82. Onyekachi Umah, “Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting/Elongation, Breasts Ironing And Forced Marriage Are Now Criminal Offences In Nigeria” (Daily Law Tips [443]) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/female-genital-mutilation-cutting-elongation-breasts-ironing-and-forced-marriage-are-now-criminal-offences-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-443-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  83. Onyekachi Umah, “Harmful Widowhood Practices (Traditions) Are Illegal In Nigeria” (Daily Law Tips [Tip 589]) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/harmful-widowhood-practices-traditions-are-illegal-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-589-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  84. Onyekachi Umah, “Forceful Isolation/Separation Of Family Members/Friends Is Now An Offence In Nigeria” (Daily Law Tips [356]) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/forceful-isolation-separation-of-family-members-friends-is-now-an-offence-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-356-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 120 April 2021
  85. Onyekachi Umah, “Abolished Anti-Women Custom of Onitsha People of Anambra State, Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws, 10 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/abolished-anti-women-custom-of-onitsha-people-of-anambra-state-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-522-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
  86. Onyekachi Umah, “Citizen By Marriage Is Discriminatory and Against Nigerian Women”, (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 14 September 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/citizen-by-marriage-is-discriminatory-and-against-nigerian-women/> accessed 20 April 2021
  87. Onyekachi Umah, “Abolished Anti-Women Custom of Yoruba People of Nigeria”, (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 11 March 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/abolished-anti-women-custom-of-yoruba-people-of-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-523-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/> accessed 20 April 2021
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  89. Onyekachi Umah, “Approval For Marriage Of Female Officers/Staff Is Unconstitutional and Discriminatory”, (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 23 September 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/approval-for-marriage-of-female-officers-staff-is-unconstitutional-and-discriminatory/> accessed 20 April 2021
  90. Onyekachi Umah, “It Is An Offence To Chase Out Wife/Husband From A Home Or Even Attempt To Do So” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 17 May 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/it-is-an-offence-to-chase-out-wife-husband-from-a-home-or-even-attempt-to-do-so-daily-law-tips-tip-333-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/> accessed 20 April 2021
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  93. Onyekachi Umah, “Government Can Lawfully Violate Human Rights: The Case of Twitter vs. Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 9 June 2021) < https://learnnigerianlaws.com/government-can-lawfully-violate-human-rights-the-case-of-twitter-vs-nigeria/> accessed 9 June 2021
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  95. Onyekachi Umah, “Adultery Is Not An Offence In All States In Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 19 October 2018) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/daily-law-tips-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-tip-209-adultery-is-not-an-offence-in-all-states-in-nigeria/> accessed 11 June 2021.
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  97. Pic Credit: Tell.ng

 

 

 

 

 

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